The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is an administrative body established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects recruited to participate in research activities conducted under the auspices of the institution with which it is affiliated.
The IRB is charged with the responsibility of reviewing, prior to its initiation, all research (whether funded or not) involving human participants. The IRB is concerned with protecting the welfare, rights, and privacy of human subjects. The IRB has the authority to approve, disapprove, monitor, and require modifications in all research activities that fall within its jurisdiction as specified by both the federal regulations and institutional policy. The IRB shall have at least five members of varying backgrounds in order to provide complete and adequate review of human research and its institutional, legal, scientific, and social implications. The Board will also include at least one member who is not affiliated with the institution and one member who is not a scientist. The IRB has several consultants who advise the Board and are periodically involved in protocol review.
A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. The review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research. It should give a theoretical base for the research and help you (the author) determine the nature of your research. The literature review acknowledges the work of previous researchers, and in so doing, assures the reader that your work has been well conceived. It is assumed that by mentioning a previous work in the field of study, that the author has read, evaluated, and assimiliated that work into the work at hand.
A literature review creates a “landscape” for the reader, giving her or him a full understanding of the developments in the field. This landscape informs the reader that the author has indeed assimilated all (or the vast majority of) previous, significant works in the field into her or his research.
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Martin began to review the course of his own past, and smiled bitterly.
Proclaim at daybreak that I myself will review the troops in the Vivarrambla.
Many evaluation systems require evaluation reports to be formally reviewed as part of quality control before they are publicly released.
Reviewing the evaluation will also help to identify how key messages may be interpreted, concerns about the methodology that need to be discussed, and possible ways that the findings will be used. Being mindful of how the evaluation findings could be received helps in presenting the findings in a way that is likely to support use.