In ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, click through to the Citation/Abstract page and look for the Publication/order number.
In the case of dissertations, the AAT number is usually preferred, since it is more widely recognized (e.g. you could use the AAT number to order a dissertation from Dissertation’s Express).
Please let us know if there is anything we can do to improve the information on this page or this site. Email us at nglthesis @shsu.edu .
To save yourself some time in making your Table of Contents, be sure that you use font styles.
Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster’s page for free fun content.
Link to this page:
The roots of the word “doctor” don’t have anything to do with medical practice. So when did this word start describing those in the medical field?
“It is impossible by elections to choose normal people,” argues Yoram Gat, an Israeli software engineer with a PhD in statistics.
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A PhD refers to a research degree. The main requirement behind a PhD is creating new knowledge. To complete a PhD, students must hold an undergraduate degree and in many cases, a master’s degree. To apply, students usually submit a research proposal to the department where they want to study. This proposal outlines what a student intends to research on, how it relates to current research and describes what methods students will use to carry out their research.
The end of a PhD is a written thesis, evidence of work completed, not what and how we, as students struggled with and overcame.
No one who takes 20+ years to complete a PhD is taken seriously by REAL academic institutions.
A: When I complete my PhD, I will return to China and devote my whole life to serving society.
“The” sounds unnatural here. When you say “the” it sounds like you are referring to a specific society that may have been mentioned before. If you mean society in general, then a/an/the isn’t needed.
apply for a project that already has specific, pre-defined aims
compete for a place on a partially or fully funded programme (often with competitive application processes).
Research in the fields of medicine, science and engineering tend to require you to:
Lets consider what is involved in research and how we share this with the world, or more particularly how can you successfully demonstrate that you have contributed some `output from your work?”
Firstly, as scientists what do we consider as outputs? The list is vast and may include:
Introduction: Most European countries accept a dual standard for determining death: total brain failure and irreversible circulatory arrest. Nevertheless, their policies differ with regard to the specific tests and requirements to determine irreversible loss of brain and/or cardiac function. Some have questioned the conceptual validity of both standards in the context of organ donation (President’s Council 2008). To better understand the extent to which these conceptual debates may have an impact in practice, some surveys have been performed within general public and health care workers involved in the determination of death and organ donation (Youngner et al. 1989; Siminoff et al. 2004; Dubois et al. 2004; Rodríguez-Arias and INCONFUSE study group 2008). Objectives: This research aims at three objectives: 1. to analyze and compare health professionals’ knowledge and beliefs regarding the dual standard; 2. to assess and compare their attitudes towards organ procurement, and 3. to elicit their underlying concepts of death and personhood. In this communication, the methodology of this research will be discussed. The procedure of the adaptation of the questionnaire and some methodological choices that have been done will be explained. The French pilot study results will be presented. Finally, the participation of new countries will be proposed.
Always double check your spelling.
Try similar keywords, for example: tablet instead of laptop.
Try using more than one keyword.
For best search results, mind the following suggestions:
EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE TO A PUBLISHED THESES
Smith, J. 2000. An investigation of the impact of services marketing on the airline industry . DBL thesis. University of South Africa, Pretoria.
Author of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.
Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
The title is not italicised and is placed in single ‘quotation marks’.
Adam, B 2016, ‘Cosmic warfare: changing models of the universe and C.S. Lewis’s defence of truth and meaning’, PhD thesis, James Cook University, viewed 17 April 2017, .
Author’s surname and initials
Year of authorship
Title of academic work
Designated level of study and type of academic work, either thesis or dissertation
Name of university
URL and date accessed (if viewed online)
Reference as normal with the author’s surname and first name initials, the year of authorship and the title. If the academic work is not generally available in the public domain, this is shown by the word ‘Unpublished’ before specifying the level of study, and whether it is a thesis or dissertation. The relevant institution is given at the end of the reference, unless the academic work is viewable online in which case the URL and date it was accessed are also added (see section 2.10 for instruction how to do this).
Johnson, Courtney N. 2016. “Not like us?: The professional boundaries of American and British journalism in the digital age.” PhD thesis, University of Washington. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global (10243601).
Caple, Andrew. 2017. “Transparency, privacy and equality: A human rights analysis of the open justice principle in Australian mental health legislation.” PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/109615/.
When writing a piece of work you will need to refer in your text to material written or produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. Consistency and accuracy are important to enable readers to identify and locate the material to which you have referred. The same set of rules should be followed every time you cite a reference.
The most widely used referencing system used in the Cork Institute of Technology to reference your essays, reports, thesis etc. is the Harvard System. The Harvard system provides for in-text citation and the creation of a bibliography at end of your work.
If you’re a student, academic, or teacher, and you’re tired of the other bibliography and citation tools out there, then you’re going to love MyBib. MyBib creates accurate citations automatically for books, journals, websites, and videos just by searching for a title or identifier (such as a URL or ISBN).
MyBib is a free bibliography and citation generator that makes accurate citations for you to copy straight into your academic assignments and papers.
Referencing is a practice of acknowledging other peoples works, ideas, sources used in a paper, assignment, report and conference papers in academic writing.
It is academic courtesy to acknowledge the work of others – none of us know everthing and we rely on the work of others
Thesis: The Master’s thesis should reveal that the candidate is able to work in a scholarly manner and is acquainted with major issues and published research on the subject of the thesis. It must make an original contribution to legal scholarship. A good thesis is thoroughly researched, demonstrates rigorous critical thinking and analysis, presents a detailed methodology and accurate results, and includes thorough verification of knowledge claims. The thesis should be between 20,000 and 25,000 words and may not exceed 35,000 words in length (approximately 100-130 pages). It must be of publishable quality and must satisfy a jury of at least two members appointed by the Assistant Dean of Graduate Studies in Law and approved by the Office of the Vice-Provost, Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies.
Research Paper: The research paper is shorter than a thesis and consists of extensive research and a strict methodology. The student must show the ability to work independently in a scholarly manner, just as with a thesis. The paper should offer something original or useful in the field of research it relates to. The finished paper should be between 10,000 and 15,000 words in length (approximately 50-60 pages). The paper will be evaluated on a “Satisfactory/Not-Satisfactory” basis by the research paper supervisor and the second evaluator, suggested by the supervisor.
The 60 points master’s dissertation will be around 20,000 words and expected to follow the Level 9 CUAP guidelines for a master’s dissertation. It is part of a 180 point MCom, which will be available from 2017, subject to CUAP approval.
The 120 points masters thesis is usually around 35,000-40,000 words including an abstract of about 350 words. It generally follows a BCom (Hons) as part of a 120 point Master of Commerce (MCom).
Our writing articles here at Smart Blogger can help you. So can the excellent writing content at Enchanting Marketing, Copyblogger, and others. And if you need formal training, the free class I mentioned earlier is well worth your time.
36 Beginner-Friendly Ways to Find Freelance Writing Jobs (2022)
1. Create a Writing Portfolio That Kicks Butt
Further Reading: How to Create a Writing Portfolio That’ll Wow Potential Clients walks you through everything you need to craft an online portfolio of your work, from portfolio sites like Contently to using your own blog. It also offers tips for building a list of writing samples if your portfolio is a bit sparse.
2. Supercharge Your Writing Skills
3. Ask for Testimonials
Most writers who do freelance work, either due to ignorance or fear, don’t ask for testimonials. Our own Jon Morrow says he’s only had a small handful of writers over the years ask him for a testimonial — even though he would’ve been perfectly happy to give one to them.
Karen offers everything I look for in a freelance writer: Her work is excellent, she finishes on time (if not ahead of schedule), and her attention to detail is wonderful. I enjoyed working with her so much that, as soon as her first article was completed, I asked her if she’d like to write for us again. I happily recommend her.
Note: You can count me among the poor, unfortunate souls who missed out on Jon’s generosity. Before becoming Smart Blogger’s Editor-in-Chief, I was a freelancer. I wrote five posts for Smart Blogger as a freelance writer, which means I passed on five opportunities for Jon to say nice things about me. Don’t repeat my mistakes — ask for testimonials at every opportunity.
4. Learn How to Craft a Killer Author Bio
5. Know How to Write a Pitch
6. Learn the Legal Side of Freelancing
The legalities can seem so scary and daunting that many freelance writers choose to stick their heads in the sand and ignore them — or, worse, give up on their freelancing dreams rather than have to deal with any of it.
Types of Writing a Freelance Writer Can Offer
– this is what I mostly write and what most companies online need.
Magazine articles – this type of writing is more formal and journalistic in nature.
Site content – businesses have websites with many pages. As a freelance writer, you might be assigned to write an About page or Products page. This typically falls under copywriting. – emails are short pieces of content between 500-1,000 words and many businesses rely on emails to grow their income.
eBooks – many businesses use eBooks to attract people to their newsletter. Most eBook writing is ghostwritten, but it’s a great experience to have under your belt. – These are lead generating professional articles for small businesses. – Like white paper writing, case studies are a high paying service to offer. You are interviewing customers and clients of a company and sharing the results of their success using the client’s product or service. – did you know there are dozens of short writing projects that pay hundreds of dollars? These are fast projects to write (under an hour) and they pay well. For example, a team page on a company website is made up of several bios. A freelance writer can write those bios and for $250 a bio, that’s not a bad service to offer!
Freelance writing has given me a whole new life of living. I take my twins to school, am here when they get sick for weeks at a time and can participate in the reading program at their school every week.
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About The Author
Hi I’m Elna and I’m a freelance writer and mom blogger. I help people just like you become a profitable freelance writer. Within 6 months of starting my freelance writing business from scratch I was able to earn a full-time living as a part-time freelance writer while taking care of my twin toddlers. Check out my free email course Get Paid to Write Online and learn the steps you need to take to be a freelance writer.
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Hi Elna, I am so grateful to stumble across your content. This is Day 1 of researching my idea of becoming a freelance writer so I appreciate learning from your guidance so early in my journey. I’m signed up for the MasterClass and just downloaded your business plan. It’s a great start for today. A bit overwhelming, but satisfying to take my first steps. Thanks again. Respectfully, NikReply to Nikki
hello there Elna…first of all i would like to say i found ur freelance writing journey really inspiring cause since the past few months i’ve been at a loss regarding what i should plan on my future career based on my interests..[which is mainly reading novels and writing poems and other stuff lol] I am surprised why i didnt think of freelancing and content writing before so thank you very much! By the way i would like to know if contents related to psychology and mental health be eye catching for readers or shud i approach a more random topic? pls reply and thank you in advance Elna!Reply to ayisha
Hi Ayisha, That’s awesome you are now thinking of content writing and being a freelance writer. Regarding your question, there are lots of niches you can write about and be an authority too! I have a Booming Writing Niches Guide that tells you all those niches: https://elnacain.com/course/booming-writing-niches/Reply to Elna
Hi Elna.I appreciate for your great and inspiring information on how you started from humble background to become a powerful freelancer writer you are.Am 20 years and currently studying Diploma in ICT in college and have been having interest on reading novels and having greater hopes that l will start writing jobs but wondering how I will get started.ThanksReply to Pauline
Hello Elna thank you so very much for the insightful information you have given me. I’m looking forward to becoming a pro freelancer one day. I am however anxious and nervous a bit. I am at ground level and unsure how to start offReply to Peterson
Hi Peterson, Thank you so much! Taking the step into freelance writing doesn’t have to be hard, but I know it can be challenging with anxious feelings. Just take it one step at a time and you’ll be a great freelance writer 🙂Reply to Elna
Hi , actually I am a teenage girl who was looking for a way to earn money so I can help out my family. Then I found your website and your words inspired me and made me realize that I can become a writer or something like that. Actually.. um.. in the past I made short stories based on quotes and there was a time when I even tried to write a novel but failed to do so because I am bad at making long chapters or to say making something lengthy 😅 I don’t have the right words for this. In the first day my novel got a ton of views because of its description( What I am trying to say is that I can only write short stories) but all the readers left reading as I couldn’t meet their expectations in the long run.And the same thing happened when I tried to wrote a chat story in an app. Sigh!! I know I am asking for more but can I become a ghost writer or something in my current state. Please reply.Reply to Zohra
Hey Zohra, That’s create you wrote a short story! That’s a big accomplishment that other writers haven’t done yet. As for writing longer content, that will take time. When I first started I couldn’t write 3,000 word in-depth blog content. That took me a few years to practice. So start a blog and practice writing! You’ll discover your writing voice and from there you can start freelance writing!Reply to Elna
Hi I’m interested in becoming a freelance writer I don’t have a degree I just feel that I have as you say a niche for expressing myself kind like a pholosefer if that’s the correct wording for it Lol. I’m a Christian man so I would probably be sharing God’s word and my testimony and other ideas of courseReply to Carlos
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Freelance writers do a lot. They have to brainstorm blog post ideas, create SEO blog posts, write in-depth long-form content, and create web copy for clients among other things. If you’re a freelance writer overwhelmed by the burden of constantly writing content, we have good news: you can get help from an assistant who never tires.
So where should you look for online writing jobs?
1.Freelance Writers Den
A great resource for freelancers, this membership site is so much more than a job board. For $40/month, you get access to more than 300 hours of “bootcamps” that teach you how to make money as a freelance writer and hundreds of forums where you can get any question answered. Whether you want to listen to the expert guests on their podcast, access the 24/7 community of writers, or check out video and audio training materials, the Den has everything a freelancer needs to grow their career — all in one place. Plus, they have direct job referrals to quality writing gigs in the Den 2x program.
One of the top job boards for freelance writing jobs and remote work, FlexJobs enables you to create a custom job search profile to meet your specific needs. Select your categories (there are several under “Writing”), your preferred work schedule, your experience level and more to hone down your search results to those that best fit the freelance writer job you’re looking for. You can also set alerts so you’re notified when new jobs matching your search criteria are posted.
SolidGigs is part job board, part productivity tool. Why? Because their team literally saves you hours of scouring job boards. They hand-pick the best gigs from around the web and compile them into a weekly email, including remote opportunities.
4.Opportunities of the Week
Sonia Weiser’s bi-weekly newsletter has become a must-have for freelance writers. She gathers dozens of calls for pitches from Twitter and emails them to her community twice a week. She offers the service through Patreon, where she asks for a membership contribution of up to $10 (and also offers sponsorships for those who can’t afford it). If you can only make a one-time contribution, she provides an option for that, too.
5.Working In Content
A platform that’s still in its beta phase, Working In Content aims to connect organizations with passionate content professionals. As a bonus, it values diversity, equity and inclusion, and it encourages the employers it works with to do the same.
Whether you’re a UX writer or a content strategist, this site is a great option to find work in content design, marketing, management and more. It offers full-time and contract roles that are either remote or in cities like Seattle, New York City and San Francisco.
6.ProBlogger Job Board
Created by Darren Rowse of ProBlogger, an authority site on blogging, the ProBlogger job board features part- and full-time, contract and freelance writer jobs across a wide variety of locations, industries and writing specialties.
Plus, given ProBlogger’s high profile in the blogosphere, it’s likely you can often find jobs posted by some big-time blogs and employers who have an idea what good writing is really worth. Besides content writing, it also lists a healthy dose of copywriting jobs.
7.Content Writing Jobs
This site content writing job board includes remote, freelance, contract and full-time jobs. To peruse these hand-picked writing opportunities, visit the site online, sign up for daily job alerts or subscribe to its paid newsletter that shares brand new openings once per week for $10/month.
8.Behance Creative Jobs
Behance allows you to upload your past projects to quickly create a visually-pleasing online portfolio, making it a great resource for writers without a website . It has its own job board which you can browse to find your next career move or freelance writing job!
Be sure to check out the freelance job board section of the site, as well, for a wide range of jobs for all experience levels from industries like TV, PR/marketing, magazine and book publishing and social media — a little something for everyone.
10.Morning Coffee Newsletter
With exclusive job opportunities as well as posts pulled from sites like Indeed and Craigslist, the job board consolidates a variety of gigs for everyone from newbie to seasoned freelancers. Save yourself the time of scouring numerous sites and let this newsletter bring the decent jobs right to your inbox.
11.Who Pays Writers?
Who Pays Writers? is a crowd-sourced list of publications that pay freelance writers — and it’s a gold mine. The list has hundreds of publications to explore; it not only shows you which publications are accepting submissions, it also tells you how much they pay per word.
How much do freelance writers charge?
Understanding how much freelance writers charge for each job is key to knowing their annual salary. Pricing varies widely from one freelance writer to another and can depend on a host of factors from how long the project takes to a freelancer’s cost of living.
Because writing is such a dynamic job that combines hard-to-quantify skills like research, creativity, and experience, it can be hard to find an effective pricing method. Most freelancers use one of the following:
How much do freelance writers charge per project?
From our research, freelance writers charge anything from $50-$1500 per long-form article. For longer content like ebooks and case studies, costs typically average around $2000. Freelance writers Priscilla Tan and Ashley Cummings both report charging at least $2000 for ebooks and case studies.
For copywriters, it’s a bit different. Copywriters write website copy — sometimes all of the copy (i.e. the static text on About Us pages, sales pages, etc.) on website pages. Since this is often a huge project, they tend to charge more per project.
British freelance copywriter Natalia’s packages start at €1100. She’s a copywriter for “creative entrepreneurs and busy bloggers.” In contrast, veteran copywriter Kayla Hollatz has a starting rate of $5000 and also works with creative entrepreneurs and small businesses. Most other copywriters fall somewhere in between.
How much do freelance writers charge per word?
Many terribly low freelance rates are due to writing for content mills or taking any jobs available on freelance job boards like Upwork and Fiverr. Additionally, in their first year of freelancing the average freelance writer is likely to charge less since they don’t know the industry very well.
Jessica Clark, a freelance writer and blogger for 10 years, says she currently charges
Factors that affect how much freelance writers earn
This is one of the top reasons why freelance writing income varies wildly. Some industries like technology, eCommerce, software as a service (SaaS), cybersecurity, and cryptocurrency have larger content budgets. As a result, they pay higher rates than lifestyle websites focused on fashion, pets, parenting, and consumer-facing health and wellness.
Again, some niches pay more than others. Long-form content like case studies and ebooks pay better, although they may take longer to complete. Technical writing, business plans, grant proposals, and press release writing also pay big bucks — though some writers may find them boring.
3. Years of experience
This is the case for freelance personal finance writer, Rebecca Lake, who reports earning about $300/hr. Lake has been writing full-time since 2014. She earns between $300-$1500 per writing project but likes to keep track of her hourly rate for her records.
.07 per word (about $105 per 1500 word article). Although she lives in the US, she writes for lifestyle sites, which are typically low-paying compared to other industries.
How much do freelance writers charge per hour?
From our research, freelance writers rarely charge by the hour. However, several individuals and organizations have done surveys to determine the average figure. Here are a couple of results worth noting:
Many copywriters offer day rates — in which clients pay to hire them for an entire day. Usually, copywriters charge 8 times their hourly rates to arrive at their day rate. Day rates can range from $200 – $600 (or more). UK freelance copywriter Laura Jane Johnson charges a day rate of £395.
Join the Freelance Writer Revolution
It’s not surprising that the practice of hiring freelancers—writers as well as a number of other specialties—is becoming more attractive to companies as technology continues to evolve and it is easier for work to be done remotely.
The fact is: As the Internet grows even bigger, business owners will need to ensure that their websites stay relevant and up-to-date. There’s always going to be a demand for well-written, persuasive content—and freelance writers can deliver it in abundance.
9 Stats That Will Make You Want to Invest in Content Marketing: https://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2017/10/stats-invest-content-marketing/ Some Statistics on Freelancers That Might Surprise You: https ://www.contentrunner.com/blog/some-statistics-on-freelancers-that-might-surprise-you/
Katie Davies is a freelance writer, blogger, and world traveler. She has written for a number of businesses and publications on her three favorite subjects of fashion, marketing, and travel. When she’s not producing content, she’s either shopping for clothes, exploring a new place, or sitting somewhere having a good cup of tea.
Hi X, I was reading the “Company name” blog and came across your name. Would love to connect, I’m a freelance writer and have been working with some finance and insurance brands like Client 1, Client 2, and Client 3. I thought I’d reach out and say hello. Have a great weekend. – Liz [If you have space here add your email or website URL to make it really easy to connect]
How to Become a Freelance Writer
Freelance content writer
A freelance content writer produces content online that informs, educates, or entertains. Great content writers need to be able to write in a variety of different tones and styles and typically need a solid understanding of search engine optimization (SEO).
Though there’s some overlap, copywriting differs from content writing in that it’s all about persuasion; copywriters take a strategic, data-driven approach to writing that’s meant to convince people to buy a product or service.
A freelance columnist works regularly with a specific publication, providing journalistic articles through the lens of their own opinions and worldviews. Whether a newspaper, magazine, or website, columnists usually contribute to a specific section, like cooking, sports, or politics.
Freelance ghostwriters create written work on behalf of and credited to another individual or company. Ghostwriters often work closely with those they’re writing for, following their voice, style, and other specifications to a T.
Freelance academic writer
As the name suggests, freelance academic writers write academic content that’s rooted in evidence-based facts. Because of this, academic writers need exceptional grammar and research skills as well as an understanding of referencing styles, like APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian.
Becoming a freelance writer: Savannah’s story
“Like many people, I wasn’t too sure what to do with my life as a college student. Despite being an English Literature major, I ended up going down the path of becoming a digital marketer because it felt ‘safer,’ and I decided to pursue my love of writing in my free time by creating a lifestyle blog.
I had no idea how to be a freelance writer, though, so I turned to a friend who was already working as one and asked her for advice. She led me to a freelancing platform called Upwork and was kind enough to give me some tips and share her profile to reference.
Since then, I’ve continued to grow my own blog and have worked with multiple clients across industries, writing blog articles, social media posts, web pages, and much, much more. As of today, I’ve happily been a freelance writer for the past three and a half years.”
Why You Should Consider Freelance Writing
Step 1: Take Inventory of Your Current Skills
When a lot of members join LRA they fall into the trap of ignoring all the skills they already have. Instead, they think they need to create an entirely new set of skills and experiences and learn everything there is to know about a topic before they can even consider becoming a freelance writer.
Before I became a freelancer, I worked in mutual funds and hedge funds, doing pricing, accounting, and risk management. In college, I also did an extended three year internship with a financial advisor, so I knew about the market, retirement investment, and asset allocation.
Action step: Make a list of the things you know. Include everything and anything that comes to mind.
Step 2: Choose a Freelance Writing Niche
Niching will help you become an expert on one topic and that means you can get super focused on the brands you want to work with and the type of content you write. Also, a lot of brands will only hire freelancers with experience in that industry.
I personally think that finding a niche early can help you get focused. Because freelance writing covers such a huge number of jobs, industries, and types of writing, it’s really easy for people to get overwhelmed and do nothing.
Then, if and when you want to focus on other areas, you already have experience freelancing and you know how to find clients. That makes switching niches easier, you just repeat the stuff that worked already.
Here are some examples:
Financial services: let’s face it, there’s money in money, and you can cover a ton of different topics ranging from personal finance to cryptocurrencies
Insurance: here’s another one that has money floating around and there are many different areas to get into
Technology: add tech to any niche, and you’re going to find lots of opportunities — sleep tech, pet tech (yes this is a thing), hospitality tech, health tech, fintech, insurtech, you name it
Hospitality: This goes beyond travel blogs (though keep those on the list too) hotels, rental cars, apps, tourist boards, airlines, travel insurance, luggage, are all involved here also
Health: There are about a million ways you can dig into health from the medical side, I know quite a few former nurses who make good money freelancing, to fitness, diet, training products, and more
Think outside the box.
Step 3: Research Your Niche
Action step: Make a big list of places and people in your niche.
Here’s What Scripted Copywriters Can Do For You
Increase Organizational Agility
There are many benefits to hiring a freelance writer for your business, not least of which is increased agility. As a Scripted member, you’re able to choose from a large pool of highly vetted writers with experience in your industry to create content quickly on a wide variety of topics and in multiple formats. If a new topic emerges in your industry, you can hire a freelance writer and create content around relevant terms.
Create Quality Content at Scale
Quality content creation at scale is a challenge for every organization. If your company is growing fast, moving into new sectors, or developing new services, you will need content to support those changes on your website, blog, social media, press releases – hiring freelance content writers allows you to scale up quickly and ensure you have all the content you need to grow. Scripted’s experienced writers make it possible to increase your content writing output without taxing internal resources.
Increase Visibility & Market Share
Creating superior content is a long-term investment to increase your visibility in search, improve conversion rates on your website, and take market share from your competitors. As a Scripted member with access to our freelance writers, you have a significant edge in creating great content that will help you connect with a larger audience and grow your business whether you’re running a new startup, a small business, or an agency.
It’s all about fair play. There is no catch. It’s easy as it is: WriterBay.com offers freelance writing jobs. All you have to do to start making money is to apply your expertise from the comfort of your home. Our user-friendly control panel makes job hunting easy and saves you a lot of time.
Our business model is different from that of other companies. Our competitors usually take 75% of what the customer pays for the job. We, on the other hand, pursue a pricing policy that is writer-friendly rather than supplier-oriented. We charge less since we don’t consider ourselves to be a direct supplier of the freelance writing jobs. We are merely an intermediary between you and the client (the customer who provided the job, e.g. essay sample)
WriterBay.com is one of the best freelance writing companies on the web. As you’ve chosen writing out of hundreds of jobs, we are looking forward to helping you put your writing skills to work. Become a part of our big family and get paid as much as you want.
I have been associated with Writerbay since 2015, had many wonderful moments with the company as we writers get a lot of freedom here. It suits my working style as I can evaluate the orders before I can accept the orders, apply for orders that I really like working on, refuse orders that I am not able to work on and talk to the people at the company if I have any issues so that they are amicably resolved. I never had issues with payments even once in all these years. Considering all these, for me, this was the best possible site.
‘I’ve been working with Writerbay since 2012 and has never been so grateful for them for believing in my capabilitues. I’ve learned a lot from them and my writing skills have improved so much. The people I worked with know their stuff and were very professional in dealing with issues. The best thing about Writerbay is that you learn while you earn. I love Writerbay and will continue to work with them for as long as I live.
Hi, Having worked for over 5 years with WriterBay, I specifically like their robust writer portal, timely promotions, thoughtful bonuses, prompt payment schedule and awesome 24 x 7 customer service. They are very strict in evaluation of papers before they are delivered to client, but this is a blessing in disguise for writers to go through an excellent learning curve and master their knowledge of citations and referencing styles. In case of any issues, they are considerate in mediating between the writer and the client. I am fully satisfied with the association and it is a great place for writers.
I have been writing for Writerbay since May 2011. At first I thought it was not a legit site but after receiving my first pay, I knew it was not a scam. Since I left my job, Writerbay became my sole source of income. Aside from a good source of livelihood for me, it has also been a learning experience. Since I started writing in Writerbay, I learned a lot about different subject matters, from criminal justice to management to economics. Writing for the company is a good exercise for my mind especially since I do not have a permanent job. I plan to work with Writerbay as long as I am able to think and use the computer.
I have been with writerbay for 5 years now. Although I have ny own share of lapses, I am believe that I develop more as a technical writer because of my tenure with writerbay. Before I was only doing it as a part time job, but I realized that the site offered me more fulfillment compared to my day job. I am now doing this full time. I know that I will learn more and I continue to look forward to establish a good working relationship with writerbay
With writerbay, I can do whatever i want in my life. This is my second job, and firstly I took a few orders per month. But then I realized I can do more and earn more! I am traveling a lot, because I can work from any country and I have money to do this. Guys, be realistic, Writerbay gives this opportunity!
I used to write for Writerbay when I was a student since you can take orders with the deadlines that suitable for you, so to combine your studies and some writing. I have not been active for some time as I do have some other stuff to worry about, but I might consider returning back. A friend of mine is still working there as a freelancer (I referred her) and her overall impression is good. Which is nice, is that I actually earn on my friend’s orders and have some passive income due to the referral program Writerbay provides.
Writerbay is undoubtedly the best company for freelancers. They have a tough hiring team so getting an account there is extremely hard. However, once you get an account at Writerbay, you will be the happiest person.. Good support, Reliable workflow..
I like that you can work on writerbay at your own pace. Even though, there are some misunderstandings from time to time, managers look into each case and clarify all the matters. In terms of pay, I have been highly satisfied. If you specialize in a specific area, you are likely to be valued. Good luck!
How Do Payments Work In Wordapp For A Freelance Writer?
Freelance writer pay is usually an ongoing concern for most online scribes. This is why Wordapp wants to help everyone to ‘monetize their language assets’ and earn an extra income. As a writer, you are not just selling your writing skills; you are selling your time and your love of language. Spending hours researching, and getting creative, to then not get paid, can be soul destroying. Freelance writer salary payments are taken very seriously at Wordapp. You will get paid what you have been promised, for every task that is approved by the publishers.
Any freelance writer will spend almost half of their time applying for work. Pitching your freelance writer fees in a competitive environment is difficult, and very often, all that hard work comes to nothing. Once you are a verified writer with Wordapp, you log in and select the job you want to do. Meaning that your freelance writer income is assured. Each task shows the payment amount, and you can track the progress of tasks in the reports provided. Once a task is approved, the money will be credited to your withdrawable balance. Balances over 50€ are paid out every single week, and any balances under 50€ are paid on the last Friday of every month.
How to start freelance writing – your first 5 steps
1. Explore freelance writing job opportunities
Upwork is one platform I often recommend getting started with. You’ll find a ton of writing opportunities there, making it an awesome place to get a feel for the freelance writing market and, of course, actually begin your career.
2. Create your freelance writing site profile
So, rather than talking a lot about yourself, where you like to go on holiday, and your cat, Greg, tailor your profile overview to focus on clients’ needs, positioning yourself as the solution to their problems.
Describe the client
Describe their pains
Describe the gains they want
Position yourself as the solution
Provide validation (testimonials and results)
End with a call to action (CTA)
So, an example of a CTA might look like, “contact me today” or “get more conversions now;” however, there are several ways you can play around with it to showcase your unique personality and stand out (like Alex does).
3. Make your freelance writing portfolio… while you apply for writing jobs
Basically, instead of wasting your time coming up with random ideas, like “101 Ways to do Underwater Basket Weaving” that might not be relevant to anyone, you’ll create an effective writing sample that aligns with what a client is looking for in their listing.
And the best part of the MVP method is, all you have to do is spend half an hour or so writing just one highly efficient 200-400 word sample, as opposed to spending days or even weeks writing several long portfolio samples that could potentially lack any significant appeal.
4. Take a freelance writing course or two to hone your skills
Freelance Article Writing: Start a Freelance Writing Career!
If you want to learn more about article writing, this is a valuable course to learn how to become a profitable freelance article writer. It includes hands-on advice on how to write and structure your articles, mistakes to avoid, how to secure the best-paying writing jobs, and much more.
Freelance Copywriting: Write Dirty. Go Big. Start Now!
For newbie copywriters, take this course to discover which steps you need to take to make money copywriting, tactics to grow quickly, the four types of copywriting you need to know, amateur mistakes to avoid, and other helpful tools.
Grant Writing for Nonprofits and Freelance Writers
The Africa Wildlife Foundation strives to protect endangered wildlife and their habitats across Africa so wildlife can continue to thrive. Along with combating illegal poaching and trafficking, the organization helps with economic development and community empowerment throughout the continent.
Our list of 30 top charities to support
1. Best animal charity to donate to: American Humane
Founded in 1877, American Humane has spent well over a century caring for animals both large and smile, wild and domesticated. Your donations help animals find shelter, urgent care, and forever homes. The organization also focuses on promoting bonds between animals and humans.
2. Best cancer charity to donate to: Cancer Research Institute
The Cancer Research Institute funds research on immunotherapy treatment for all types of cancer. Its programs include training for emerging cancer researchers, clinical research, and public education initiatives. The organization puts 88 cents out of every dollar donated toward its programs.
3. Best charity that supports the AAPI community: GoFundMe.org’s Support the AAPI Community Fund
There has been a heartbreaking increase in violence against Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) throughout the US. It is up to us to collectively come together to stop Asian hate and push for change. GoFundMe stands with the AAPI community and is committed to resolving the racial inequities in our society. Support, uplift, and protect Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders through GoFundMe.org’s AAPI Community Fund. GoFundMe.org is an independent, registered 501(c)(3) public charity that works closely with GoFundMe. Donations to the fund go towards grants issued by GoFundMe.org that help trusted AAPI organizations that are advocating for racial justice.
4. Best charity that supports the Black community: Color Of Change
Color Of Change is a civil rights advocacy nonprofit that works to build a better world for Black people. This nonprofit has 7 million members, making it the biggest online racial justice organization in the US. They create campaigns that build power for Black communities, celebrate Black joy, and strive for progressive solutions that make a lasting impact.
5. Best COVID-19 charity to donate to: Direct Relief
Looking to support COVID-19 charities doing great work? Direct Relief is one of the best charities to donate to during the coronavirus. It uses its worldwide distribution and resources to provide medical aid such as PPE and vaccines to hospitals and facilities in the US and globally. Additionally, this charity has supported over 500 health facilities and organizations with over $74.5 million in grants.
6. Best legal aid charity to donate to: The Innocence Project
More than 365 innocent individuals in the US have been exonerated thanks to DNA evidence. The Innocence Project fights for justice by re-examining cold cases with new DNA evidence and freeing those who were wrongfully convicted. The nonprofit also aims to reform the criminal justice system to prevent future wrongful incarcerations.
7. Best veterans charity to donate to: Hope for the Warriors
Hope for the Warriors provides what it calls a full cycle of care to service members, veterans, and their families. It focuses on health and wellness, fostering a sense of community, and providing support for those transitioning from military to civilian life.
8. Best women’s health charity to donate to: Center for Reproductive Rights
This nonprofit envisions a world where every woman is treated as an equal and is free to make crucial decisions related to her own reproductive health. Its attorneys fight both nationally and internationally to give women access to birth control, safe abortions, and reproductive care.
9. Best education charity to donate to: Scholarship America
When high school students dream of going to college but can’t afford the steep costs, Scholarship America steps in to lend a hand. The organization dedicates a majority of its cash budget to programs directly related to sending individuals to college, like scholarship funds, college readiness programs, and financial aid education.
10. Best disaster relief charity to donate to: Operation USA
From ongoing earthquake recovery in Ecuador and Nepal to programs for Native Americans in South Dakota, Operation USA delivers aid to all corners of the globe. The nonprofit has worked in over 101 countries since 1979, focusing not only on disaster relief and reconstruction, but on helping and educating underserved communities.
11. Best Alzheimer’s charity to donate to: The Alzheimer’s Association
The Alzheimer’s Association aims to fight and cure Alzheimer’s disease from all sides. Donations fund Alzheimer’s research and clinical trials and help connect individuals and families affected by Alzheimer’s to care in their communities. The organization also advocates for Alzheimer’s research nationally and at the state level.
12. Best LGBTQ charity to donate to: The Trevor Project
The ultimate goal of The Trevor Project is to end suicide among LGBTQ people under 25 by providing them with counseling and education. It offers young people support with trained counselors via phone, text, and online chat. Every donation has a direct impact on changing and saving the lives of LGBTQ youths.
How to find charities
They say money can’t buy you happiness—but giving some of it away just might. Research by social psychologist Liz Dunn shows spending on others makes people happier. And it’s not just a grown-up thing: Studies show even toddlers feel good when they give.
The real question when it comes to giving isn’t why, but who? Choosing a charity is a hugely personal decision. Start by thinking about the causes closest to your heart. For example, are you an animal person? Or have you experienced diseases such as dementia in your family and want to help others in the same position? Or do you want to protect the environment? To help you make a difference, we have selected 25 of the best UK charities to donate to below. Each one represents a hugely important cause.
What are the best charities to donate to in the UK
1. Cancer Research UK
The world’s largest independent cancer research charity has one aim: to reduce the number of deaths from cancer through prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Its research has saved lives, and they recently funded research that could help predict and detect kidney cancer years before people begin to show symptoms. You can get involved by volunteering or taking part in one of their many fundraising events such as a Race for Life (5 or 10k) [link to Race for Life piece] and the annual Stand Up to Cancer. Cancer Research UK also contributed £160 million to help fund the pioneering Francis Crick Institute, which studies the biology behind disease.
2. British Heart Foundation (BHF)
As the single biggest funder of cardiovascular research in the UK, the BHF pay for nearly £100 million of research annually. They are a popular choice for many GoFundMe users who are looking to support the charity’s aim to help the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart and circulatory diseases. The BHF say people power their life-changing research—and you can get involved today. If you’re looking for inspiration to start a campaign, the charity organises a sponsored skipping challenge through schools, Jump Rope for Heart, as well as Wear Red Day and free collection of books, clothes, and more that you want to give to charity.
Cancer affects one in two Britons over their lifetime, and Macmillan looks after the needs of those affected in every sense of the word. Its goal is to improve the lives of those living with cancer in the UK through providing practical support for people affected by disease in terms of work, their finances, and their health. The charity hosts a number of notable fundraisers, including their World’s Biggest Coffee Morning, and GoFundMe users have previously shaved their heads, beards and given up alcohol in aid of the charity.
4. Great Ormond Street Hospital Charity
Great Ormond Street Hospital, or GOSH, is a world-renowned treatment centre for children. But did you know it also has its own charity, which works to support the hospital and fund research all over the country? After merging with children’s medical charity Sparks in 2017, GOSH now has the biggest fund in the UK dedicated to child health research.
Every day, around the world, children go blind from illnesses that are entirely preventable. Sightsavers is an international organisation that works with partners in more than 30 countries to try and stop this from happening. Across the world, Sightsavers say 12 million people are blind because of cataracts when an operation that costs just £30 could save their sight. Whether you fancy running the London marathon, climbing Mount Kilimanjaro, a tandem skydive, or something slightly more relaxing, you can start fundraising for them on GoFundMe today.
6. Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Did you know that two Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) crews and 19 of their boats helped to assist the evacuation of British troops during World War II at Dunkirk? The RNLI has been saving lives at sea in and around the UK since 1824, and there are hundreds of RNLI fundraising branches which support a particular station or project. It cost £176.5 million to fund their activities last year, and they’re always looking for members of the public to get involved with giving. They even suggest hosting your own pirate day to raise cash.
7. British Red Cross
It doesn’t matter who or where you are—if you’re in crisis, the British Red Cross will help you. The British Red Cross is the United Kingdom body of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. They are currently running campaigns to help refugees in Syria and refugees in Myanmar, plus an ongoing crisis fund for those in the UK. In the past, GoFundMe users have pledged to abseil down the Olympic orbit tower to help fundraise for them, and the Red Cross suggest you get involved through volunteering, donating, or organising a sponsored silence to raise money.
In Britain, 16 people end their own life every day. And every 52 seconds, someone in crisis calls the Samaritans’ 24-hour phone line designed to help those feeling suicidal. As well as providing dedicated, round-the-clock support for those who need it most on the phone, the Samaritans work within communities to raise awareness of mental health issues. They are always looking for volunteers if you want to donate time, but the Samaritans encourage those looking to fundraise to get in touch and let them know about their plans.
9. Save the Children
Save the Children work in more than 50 countries around the world to fight for children’s rights in some of the hardest places to be a child. They work to improve lives through education and healthcare as well as providing relief at times of crisis. Tough Mudder, an endurance event series that requires some serious preparation, is a popular choice of fundraiser promoted by the charity. But if you’re looking for a slightly less rigorous challenge, you could try a 10k charity run like previous GoFundMe users.
Against Malaria Foundation
Against Malaria Foundation works to prevent the spread of malaria by distributing long-lasting, insecticide-treated mosquito nets to susceptible populations in developing countries. AMF has been active in 36 countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with a particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Read more >
Carbon180 is a climate–focused nonprofit on a mission to fundamentally rethink carbon. The organization champions the development and implementation of carbon removal technologies and practices– a critical but relatively neglected component of achieving climate goals. It does this through research, policy development and advocacy and innovation support. Read more >
Clean Air Task Force
The Clean Air Task Force (CATF) is an impact-focused non-profit that advocates for clean air policies. In addition, CATF promotes innovation in and adoption of neglected low-carbon technologies. Through policy change, technology innovation, and thought leadership, CATF drives impact to prevent catastrophic climate change through pragmatic solutions. Read more >
Development Media International
Development Media International runs large-scale media campaigns in low-income countries via radio, television, and mobile video. They work with local broadcasters to create informative and engaging programming that focuses on maternal and child health, nutrition, hygiene and sanitation, sexual reproductive health, and early childhood development. Read more >
Equalize Health (D-Rev)
Equalize Health designs and delivers affordable, innovative medical technologies that protect and transform the lives of the global poor. They recognize that health is a prerequisite to autonomy and self-sufficiency, and strive to address global health inequities. Read more >
Evergreen Collaborative is creating the blueprint to defeat the climate crisis and build a clean energy future through actionable, ambitious policy proposals. Evergreen Collaborative seeks to influence Congress, the Executive Branch, and federal agencies through direct work with Hill offices and by coordinating with a wide coalition of other environmental groups. The organization was founded by former staffers of Washington State Governor Jay Inslee’s 2020 presidential campaign. Read more >
Evidence Action operates three main initiatives. Dispensers for Safe Water installs and maintains chlorine dispensers in rural Africa. The Deworm the World Initiative partners with governments in India, Nigeria, and Pakistan school-based deworming programs. And Evidence Action’s Accelerator drives new program development, testing and refining high-potential, cost-effective interventions. Read more >
Fistula Foundation is the global leader in treating obstetric fistula, a devastating childbirth injury that leaves women incontinent, humiliated, and often shunned by their communities. In addition to covering direct surgery costs, Fistula Foundation also supports training surgeons, equipping facilities, grassroots community outreach, and holistic post-surgery reintegration. Read more >
The Fred Hollows Foundation
The Fred Hollows Foundation is a leading international development organisation with a vision for a world where no person is needlessly blind or vision impaired. The Foundation has restored sight to more than 2.5 million people around the world and has supported programs to deliver more than 200 million doses of antibiotics for trachoma. They work with communities to improve their own eye health through life-changing surgeries and treatments, training doctors and health workers and pushing for change at all levels. Read more >
GiveDirectly provides unconditional cash transfers using cell phone technology to some of the world’s poorest people, as well as refugees, urban youth, and disaster victims. They also are currently running a historic Universal Basic Income initiative, delivering a basic income to 20,000+ people in Kenya in a 12-year study. Read more >
GAIN’s Salt Iodization Program
Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition’s (GAIN’s) mission is to increase the consumption of nutritious foods among vulnerable populations, especially women, girls, and children. They work to strengthen food systems — particularly salt iodization — by building partnerships between governments, the private sector, and communities to design and implement effective and sustainable nutrition programs. The specific program that The Life You Can Save recommends is GAIN’s Salt Iodization program Read more >
Helen Keller International
Helen Keller International’s Vitamin A Supplementation programs provide critical nutrition to children around the world at-risk for vitamin A deficiency — a condition that can lead to blindness and death. Read more >
Probably, though your lender may charge a prepayment penalty for doing so. This might be a flat rate or a percentage of what you would have paid in interest. Read through your contract and talk to your lender to learn what fees you might face for early repayment.
What types of business loans are available?
From term loans to lines of credit to short-term funding, you have a variety of business loan options to choose from. What’s right for you will come down to the type of business you own and what it needs funding for.
Term loans. Business term loans are typically unsecured and ideal for covering a one-time expense. You receive a lump sum — typically anywhere from $5,000 to $5 million — that you pay back plus interest and fees over five to 25 years.
SBA loans. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers several loan programs for business owners who’ve struggled to qualify for financing in the past. These are typically term loans that come with more competitive rates since they’re partially backed by the government. However, the application process can take months to complete.
Lines of credit. Similar to a credit card, you receive access to a credit line that you can draw from as needed. Depending on the lender, you’ll either be on the hook for fixed installments over a set term or minimum monthly repayments.
Equipment and vehicle financing. These work like term loans, but they’re secured by the equipment or vehicle your business is purchasing. Rates tend to be lower than with their unsecured counterparts, but you risk losing your asset should you default.
Short-term business loans.Short-term business loans — typically invoice factoring, invoice financing and merchant cash advances — are ideal for businesses that need emergency funds fast. While they’re typically easier to qualify for, they’re more expensive than the other options on this list. And repayments are usually due daily or weekly over a few months.
How much can I borrow?
Depending on the lender and type of financing, you may be able to borrow anywhere from $5,000 to $5 million. The exact amount depends on how long you’ve been in business, your annual revenue and your personal credit score. What you plan on using the funds for and your existing relationship with the lender may also play a role. And some lenders might require collateral for larger amounts.
Because business loans are so common, you can find lenders that offer both online and in-person applications. You can also go through an online business loan connection service to prequalify with multiple lenders at once.
The information you need to provide will vary depending on the the type of business loan you’re applying for and the provider you go with. In general, you might need to have the following documents on hand:
Is a business loan connection service a direct lender?
No, a business loan connection service isn’t a direct lender. Instead, it works with affiliate lenders to help you find financing you might qualify for. After filling out an online form, you’ll receive prequalification offers from lenders that may be able to provide funding. This gives you an idea of what rates and terms you might qualify for before filling out the lender’s full application.
Term loans are one of the most popular types of small business loans. If you’ve ever taken out a mortgage or financed a vehicle purchase, then you’re probably familiar with the mechanics of a term loan. Term loans are delivered via a lump-sum of capital from a lender and paid off in fixed installments according to a schedule until you pay back the principal plus any applicable interest (and any fees). Repayment periods can vary from short term (12 months or less) to medium term (1 -3 years) to long term (3+ years). Term loans are typically secured by a lien on your business assets (a right for the lender to seize those assets if you default on the loan) and may require a personal guarantee, which means your personal assets may be liable if your business defaults on the loan. One of the perks of a term loan is that the interest rate, which could be either fixed or variable, tends to be competitive and lower than other types of small business financing. This is especially true when you consider that you may be repaying the loan over a number of years. Business owners have flexibility with regards to how they can use the funds. For instance, one could use a small business term loan to expand to a new location, replenish inventory, or hire new employees.
Merchant Cash Advance
Merchant cash advances (MCAs) aren’t exactly small business loans. Instead, they’re a cash advance against your future credit card revenue delivered to you in a lump-sum. The advanced amount, which can be anywhere from 5000,500 to $400,000 is determined by the issuer and based on your average monthly credit card sales. For example, through Funding Circle’s network of lending partners, this amount is between $5,000 and $500,000. Because the cash advance is repaid as a percentage of your daily credit card revenue, it may take anywhere from 90 days to two-and-a-half years to repay. One of the key risks of MCAs is piling on too many of them – known as stacking – which may completely deplete your cash flow. You should also be aware that interest rates (often expressed as a factor rate) can be very high, ranging between 40-350%. Learn more about applying for a merchant cash advance through Funding Circle.
But which should you use? Some dissertations have a reference list, some have a bibliography, some have both. Ask your supervisor, and look at past papers in your subject to find out which to use.
A page where you give the detailed references for all source materials you have read . It doesn’t matter if you have referred to them in the paper or not; if you looked at them in your research, list them here.
An explanation of what lies behind the requirements that need to be met by a research proposal
What readers should expect from their supervisors and what the researched organisation might expect from readers
Support for the confused and anxious student.
This book will guide the student through a challenging time, giving quick and realistic support to enable a stress-free completion of their final dissertation and project write up.
does the abstract count in the word count of a dissertation
Please refer to your programme and module handbooks for guidance on word counts as requirements may differ slightly.
Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre at the UCL Institute of Education.
Between October 1st and 15th, the PhD students will have to apply for the thesis defense following the instructions provided by e-mail by the PhD office. Once the thesis is finished, the file must be uploaded in the student’s Personal Area, and then validated by the supervisor some days in advance of the date of the thesis defense.
In short, students are supposed to submit some documents to the PhD Academic Board, including the thesis. The Board will give an advice on the student’s admission to the thesis defense and appoint, for each PhD student, two referees in charge of reviewing the thesis. The reviewers will decide if the thesis is ready to be defended or if it needs some editing, which might take up to 6 months of work. After that, the thesis will be admitted to the defense in any case.
The Ph.D. thesis is the intended outcome of the doctoral training period.
As a general rule, you must have been enrolled on your Ph.D. program for at least 24 months before initianing thesis defense proceedings. The Academic Committee will establish the requirements for the public review of your thesis and propose the members of the dissertation committee. The Doctoral School Board is to approve this proposal and authorize the dissertation event.
Congratulations to Joe Primeau for successfully defending his PhD Thesis. (Pictured here with his PhD supervisor, Dr. Howard Young)
474 Medical Sciences Building University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta Canada T6G 2R3
The disputation is the public defence of the thesis. Prior to the public defence you must hold a trial lecture.
Dates for the PhD examination cannot be set before the thesis is found worthy of public defence. See deadlines in connection with holidays.