Ten Rules for Negotiating a Job Offer

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Ten Rules for Negotiating a Job Offer

When the story of how I landed a job at Airbnb went viral, I was surprised at how infatuated people were with my negotiations. Media stories portrayed me as some kind of master negotiator — a wily ex-poker-player who was able to con the tech giants into a lucrative job offer.

This is silly. It’s silly for a lot of reasons, but one of the main ones is that in reality, my negotiation skills are nothing special. There are lots of job candidates who are better negotiators than I, to speak nothing of recruiters and other professional negotiators.

Worse yet, most of the advice out there on negotiation is borderline useless. Almost anything you read on the subject will be a vague and long-winded exhortation to “make sure you negotiate” and “never say the first number.” Beyond those two morsels of advice, you’re pretty much on your own.

I thought to myself: why is there so little actionable advice out there about negotiation? I suspect it’s because deep down, many people believe that negotiation is inexplicable, that it’s something some people can do and others can’t, and that there’s no real way to break it down so anyone can learn it.

I say that’s BS. Negotiation is a skill that can be learned, just like any other. I don’t believe it’s particularly elusive or hard to understand. So I’m going to try to explain how anyone can do it.

Second: negotiation is tricky to generalize about because it’s deeply intertwined with social dynamics and power. The appropriate advice for an Asian male in Silicon Valley may not be appropriate for a black woman in Birmingham, Alabama. Racial, sexual, and political dynamics accompany you to the negotiating table.

At the same time, I want to caution against overemphasizing these factors. Being afraid to negotiate out of fear of discrimination can often be just as deleterious as discrimination itself.

Third: I’m the first to admit that negotiation is stupid. It’s a practice that inherently benefits those who are good at it, and is an absurd axis on which to reward people. But it’s a reality of our economic system. And like most collective action problems, we’re probably not going to be able to abolish it any time soon. In which case, you might as well improve at it.

So here’s my guide to negotiation. It’s going to be split into two parts: this first part will be about conceptualizing the negotiating process, about how to begin the process and set yourself up for maximal success. The second part will be advice on the actual back-and-forth portion of negotiating and how to ask for what you want.

Salary Negotiation Tips 1-11 Getting Prepped

1. Know Your Value

If you’re going to get the pay you deserve, it’s crucial to know the going rate for your position in your specific industry and in your geographic area. As I Will Teach You to Be Rich’s Ramit Sethi points out, if you walk into a salary negotiation without a number, you’re at the mercy of an experienced hiring manager who can simply control the conversation.

2. Talk to Recruiters

Another way to do some research? Pick up those calls from recruiters. They know what people with your experience and expertise are worth, so use it to your advantage! The next time one reaches out to you, engage in a conversation about the position’s responsibilities and pay. You may not get a specific number, but even a range is helpful.

3. Organize Your Thoughts

4. Pick the Top of the Range

As you’re doing your research, you’ll likely come up with a range that represents your market value. It can be tempting to ask for something in the middle of the range, but instead you should ask for something toward the top.

5. Know the (Exact) Number

Turns out, when employees use a more precise number in their initial negotiation request, they are more likely to get a final offer closer to what they were hoping for. This is because the employer will assume you’ve done more extensive research into your market value to reach that specific number.

6. Be Willing to Walk Away

When considering your numbers, you should also come up with a “walk away point”—a final offer that’s so low that you have to turn it down. This could be based on financial need, market value, or simply what you need to feel good about the salary you’re bringing home.

7. Make Sure You’re Ready

Have you been at your job for a year? Have you taken on new responsibilities since you’ve been hired? Have you been exceeding expectations (rather than just meeting them)? The answer to all of these should be “yes.”

8. Plan the Right Timing

Turns out, timing is everything. Most people wait until performance review season to ask for a salary adjustment, but by that time, your boss has probably already decided what raises will be doled out to the team.

Instead? “Start talking to your boss about getting a raise three to four months in advance,” writer and former human resources professional Suzanne Lucas of EvilHRLady.org told LearnVest. “That’s when they decide the budget.”

9. Prepare a One-Sheet

Prepare a “brag sheet,” recommends Kathleen O’Malley of Babble. “It’s a one-page summary that shows exactly how awesome you are as an employee. List any accomplishments, awards, and customer or co-worker testimonials (“You saved me when you did XYZ!” emails definitely count as testimonials!) you’ve received since your last review. You want to demonstrate your value to your boss.”

10. Remember Practice Makes Perfect

11. Set the Meeting for Thursday

We tend to start off the week more hard-nosed and even disagreeable, but become more flexible and accommodating as the week wears on. “Thursdays and Fridays find us most open to negotiation and compromise because we want to finish our work before the week is out,” reports Psychology Today.

Salary Negotiation Tips 12-20 Starting the Conversation

12. Power Up

Before you go into the negotiation, try Amy Cuddy’s tip of doing a “power pose”—in other words, going into the bathroom and standing tall with your hands on your hips, your chin and chest raised proud, and your feet firm on the ground. Doing so raises testosterone, which influences confidence and reduces the stress hormone cortisol.

13. Drink Some Coffee

14. Walk in With Confidence

“The way you enter a room can dictate how the rest of an interaction will be,” says James Clear. “Ever see someone slump through a doorway with a scowl on their face? Not very inspiring. Keep your head high and smile when you enter. Starting things off with a positive vibe is very important, no matter how small it is.”

15. Start With Questions

You should start the negotiation conversation by asking diagnostic questions to understand more about the other party’s true needs, desires, fears, preferences, and priorities. Professor Leigh Thompson at the Kellogg School of Business at Northwestern University says that 93% of all negotiators fail to ask these “diagnostic questions” in circumstances where getting them answered would significantly improve the outcome of negotiations.

16. Show What You Can Do

Remember that brag sheet? Now’s your chance to walk through your accomplishments with your manager. If possible, print a copy for your manager to look at while you summarize what you’ve achieved this year. You’ll want to specifically highlight times when you’ve gone above and beyond in your role, which will build the case that you deserve a raise. Then, be prepared with a few thoughts on what you’re excited to take on going forward—whether that’s freeing up some of your manager’s bandwidth by taking on an existing project, or proposing a new idea that you’re excited to own.

17. Focus on the Future, Not the Past

When negotiating the salary for a new job, it’s not uncommon for the company (or even a recruiter during the job search process!) to ask about your current salary. (Note that in many localities, doing so is now illegal.)

Instead, give your current number (including benefits, bonuses, and the like) and then quickly move the conversation along to explain the number you’re looking for, focusing on explaining your new skills or responsibilities, your market value, and how you’re looking to grow, explains Pynchon.

18. Think About the Other Person

When preparing for negotiating, get in the mindset of thinking about the situation from your opponent’s perspective, recommends career expert Steph Stern. Research by Columbia psychologist Adam Galinsky shows that when we consider the other person’s thoughts and interests, we are more likely to find solutions that work well for both of us.

19. Try Thinking About Someone Else

“So, in preparing to negotiate, think about how what you’re asking for will impact those around you: It’s not just for you, but also for your family and your future. It’s even for your employer! After all, if you are happier with your position and compensation, you’re more likely to work hard and be successful.”

20. Stay Positive, Not Pushy

Negotiation may be scary, but you should always keep the conversation on a positive note, recommends Forbes. “[Kick] off the conversation with something like, ‘I really enjoy working here and find my projects very challenging. In the last year, I’ve been feeling that the scope of my work has expanded quite a bit. I believe my roles and responsibilities, and my contributions have risen. I’d like to discuss with you the possibilities of reviewing my compensation.’”




Notetaking Hacks: Supercharge Your College Experience with These Notetaking Tips

cornell method notes

How to Take Better Notes: The 6 Best Note-Taking Systems

Heading off to college is kind of like leveling up in a video game. In high school, the tests and courses were smaller bosses that you could take down with low-level equipment. Now that you’re in college, you’re going to need to upgrade some of those items you’re taking with you if you want to succeed. This is a whole new adventure, my dude.

One of the tools you have at your disposal is your notes. Maybe in high school you were pretty good at taking notes, and now you just need to upgrade them a little bit. Maybe you’re feeling like I did in college, and you’ve realized you’ve never properly learned how to take notes.

Never fear! Your guide to taking awesome, effective notes is finally here. Your days of looking back at what you scribbled down in class and trying to decipher useful information from them before a test are over.

In this guide, we’ll talk about how to prepare yourself to take good notes in class, introduce some popular techniques for taking notes, and cover the best ways to get the most out of your notes after class.

Before you even think about heading to class, make sure that you’ve read (or at least skimmed) all pre-assigned reading from your professor. Even if you don’t have assigned reading, try and familiarize yourself with the topic before you get to class so you know what to expect.

A 2004 study by Spies and Wilkin found that the law students who were responsible for reading a legal case before they got to class displayed a greater understanding of the learning materials than students who were not expected to prepare before class.

Also, don’t forget to pack all the things you need to learn effectively. Make sure you have multiple pencils (or some backup lead), a notebook, pens, highlighters, sticky notes, your textbook, and your laptop.

Don’t forget water! It’s tempting to bring coffee or some other form of caffeine to class. Try to stick to water and consume caffeine intelligently. While coffee doesn’t dehydrate you, and coffee in moderation certainly helps you focus and stay alert, caffeine dependency interferes with your quality of sleep and impairs mental function, ultimately impacting your ability to pay attention during class.

Apples and peanut butter, crackers and cheese, or even certain power bars are good options. These snacks will leave you feeling full for longer, ensuring that you won’t be distracted by how much you want a burrito in the middle of your professor’s lecture about the structure of a cell.

Develop a System

For example, don’t wait until the lecture starts to get your orienting information (date, class, topic, etc.) down. Take some time before the week begins to set up your notetaking space for the coming week so that when you get to class, you’re ready to start taking notes as soon as the lecturer starts.

There’s nothing so daunting at exam time as a notebook crammed wall to wall with tiny text that all looks the same. Whether you’re handwriting or taking notes digitally, it’s important to use space meaningfully.

Write the main points larger than the rest (or use built-in heading levels in OneNote, Word, or wherever you’re taking your digital notes). Leave margin space for “rabbit trails” or asides that seem important.

Allow yourself space for a quick illustration or diagram, if that makes sense for your discipline. You can also highlight key terms to draw your attention back to them. (This works just as well digitally as on paper, by the way.)

Use other resources

If you’re struggling in a class, it’s also helpful to get different perspectives. Websites and blogs cover every academic topic known to man. YouTube likely has hundreds if not thousands of videos on whatever you’re having problems with. Khan Academy is an awesome resource with thousands of videos on every subject at every level.

Every school also has some kind of an academic support center. Go there and find out what their resources are for your classes. Do it before you need help so you’ll be ready if you do need it. They’ll give you the names and contact info for teaching assistants or tutors for any subject.

All of this is yet another reason to talk to your professors. Ask them on the first day of class, “Hey, if I can’t figure this out, what other resources on campus and online do you recommend to help me learn the material?” Make a list of those additional resources and use them early and often.

After Class

Class is over. You think you took great notes and you understood everything, but you aren’t done yet. Do a couple of things right away while that last class is still fresh in your mind. Make sure you close up any loose ends before you move on to something else. In fact, stay right there in that empty classroom if you can. Why waste time walking somewhere else?

Review notes IMMEDIATELY

The time to review notes is immediately after you’ve taken them. You were writing frantically. Lots of new concepts. Lots of abbreviations and shorthand. While everything’s still fresh in your mind, scan through your notes. It’s hard to decipher your hieroglyphs a week after class.

Back It Up

I know this may sound anal, but after each class, open up your notebook and take a photo of each page with your cell phone. It takes only a few seconds, and the risk of loss far outweighs the effort.

Wrap It Up

By that I mean, you took great notes thanks to the Cornell method. You completely understand everything. You’ve reviewed and clarified your notes to make sure they’re complete and any shorthand is clear. You’ve written the test questions while the material is fresh in your mind.




25 Leadership Qualities That Makes You A Good Leader


10 Qualities of a Good Leader

Good leaders possess self-awareness, garner credibility, focus on relationship-building, have a bias for action, exhibit humility, empower others, stay authentic, present themselves as constant and consistent, become role models and are fully present.

If you have worked for a bad leader, you likely already have the answer to why good leadership matters. Good leadership can make the difference between enjoying your job and tolerating your job.

Before we dig into what makes a leader good, let’s think about the costs of bad leadership. Even before the Great Resignation of the COVID 19 pandemic, bad leaders cost their organizations in terms of reduced productivity and employee turnover. For example, it’s estimated that poor leadership reduces team member productivity by up to 7%, according to The Ken Blanchard Companies (PDF Source).

Additionally, bad leaders also cost their organizations by increasing the potential for employees to become burned out. Gallup research suggests that in June 2021, 74% of employees said they sometimes experienced burnout on the job, and burned-out employees are 23% more likely to visit the emergency room. The human costs of bad leadership are just as bad and include low employee morale and decreased job satisfaction. In other words, bad leaders are the difference between a job you love and a job you might leave.

Here is the list of 25 essential leadership qualities that help leaders to achieve greater success

1. Integrity


Integrity is a core quality that every leader must possess. You cannot run any business successfully if you lack integrity. Self-development author Brian Tracy says that whenever he holds a strategic business meeting, the first value every executive agrees on is integrity.

Business leaders know- Integrity is the foundation of good leadership, and one must stand for their beliefs. No matter how hard a situation, a good leader inspires with his principles without compromising; they refrain from making false promises or take shortcuts, choosing thoughts and action over personal gain. Delivering the said promises as ethically and morally grounded is necessary to pay the dividend in the long run.

2. Innovative


An innovative leader is not a creative genius with thought-provoking ideas but gives others the freedom to develop their ideas. You would always find people with great ideas who lack the will, determination, and fear of taking any actions. But innovative leaders are not one of them.

Innovative people are always open to new ideas and discussions. They listen to everyone actively and also motivate others to think out of the box. This quality gives them an edge over others since they are always hunting for creativity and innovations. As the innovative leader, Steve Jobs himself said, ‘Innovations distinguish between a leader and a follower.’


3. Honesty


One of the essential leadership qualities is the possession of honesty. Honesty is expected from leaders to garner trust and respect from people for reliability. Moreover, we look upto people who are loyal to their words and are accountable. Thus, honesty is the most valued trait for any business leader or any leader in general.

4. Active Listening


The roots of effective leadership lie in simple things, one of which is listening. Listening to someone demonstrates respect; it shows that you value their ideas and are willing to hear them. ~John Baldoni

Active listening is an excellent quality to have when it comes to leadership. Good leaders listen to people with great attention and sincerity. It helps them understand people and their perspectives. Active listening builds trust and relationships in the long run. Good leaders communicate with care, focus on the person and the message; they don’t interrupt and acknowledge what is being said. And that is what the world needs; leaders who listen to its people. Acquiring this skill is not easy; it needs self-awareness and humility to respect others’ thoughts.

5. Self-Confidence


Self-confidence is found abundantly amidst true leaders; hence they know about their competencies and leadership qualities. They are sure about their competencies and leadership skills. They have a sense of self-assurance and self-esteem and, most importantly, believe that they can make a difference. As Rosalynn Carter rightly said, ‘You have to have confidence in your ability and be tough enough to follow through.’

Self-confidence is critical for leadership because it gives them wings to take risks, accomplish goals, and fly high. Organizational leaders take charge themselves and march with positivity and confidence. It allows them to make immediate decisions, solve organizational problems and conflicts. Good leaders take full responsibility and quick actions without passing on issues, ignoring, or procrastinating.

6. Visionary


How to improve your leadership skills

1. Perform an inventory of your leadership skills

It’s hard to improve your leadership skills if you don’t know where you’re lacking. Because of this, one of the very first things you should do is take an inventory of your strengths and weaknesses in leadership.

You can also ask others for feedback, such as friends, colleagues, or even your boss. Because they know you well and may have even worked with you, they can provide valuable insight into your strengths and weaknesses.

2. Set goals

In the areas that you lack, you can set goals for how to further develop. In areas that you think you’re doing well in, you can set goals for how to use these skills in a leadership capacity.

For example, let’s say you lack positivity. In order to develop this trait, you could start keeping a gratitude journal that you write in every morning. This way, you start consciously focusing on the good in your life.

3. Seek out opportunities to practice

One of the best ways to better yourself is through practice. If you want to develop new leadership skills, or utilize ones you already possess, you need to seek out leadership opportunities that will challenge you.

4. Get help from others

Seeking help from others is an important step in improving your leadership skills. It allows you to learn from others and see perspectives you may not have considered on your own.

How to use leadership qualities in the workplace

You don’t have to be in a management position to exercise the qualities of an exceptional leader. Leaders are the ones who help and motivate the people around them. They have good ideas and set a good example.

Build strengths and overcome weaknesses

For example, maybe your listening skills leave something to be desired. The next time you talk to a colleague about a project, make a conscious effort to remember each point and follow up on the important ones.

Be a knowledge sponge

Learn everything you can about your industry and your organization. Seek out training for new skills. You can do this through self-directed learning, or you can participate in formal programs. You can also utilize learning modes such as microlearning.


You might have all the skills you need for your current position, but learning new things opens up future possibilities. If you’re already in a management role, continuing to learn will help you have better ideas and develop a stronger strategy.

Develop your people skills

Every day is a new opportunity to become a better leader by improving your people skills. Whether you’re starting an entry-level job or taking on a major leadership role, you’ll have many chances to:

Do outstanding work




Freelance writer

Our writing articles here at Smart Blogger can help you. So can the excellent writing content at Enchanting Marketing, Copyblogger, and others. And if you need formal training, the free class I mentioned earlier is well worth your time.


36 Beginner-Friendly Ways to Find Freelance Writing Jobs (2022)

1. Create a Writing Portfolio That Kicks Butt

Further Reading: How to Create a Writing Portfolio That’ll Wow Potential Clients walks you through everything you need to craft an online portfolio of your work, from portfolio sites like Contently to using your own blog. It also offers tips for building a list of writing samples if your portfolio is a bit sparse.

2. Supercharge Your Writing Skills

3. Ask for Testimonials

Most writers who do freelance work, either due to ignorance or fear, don’t ask for testimonials. Our own Jon Morrow says he’s only had a small handful of writers over the years ask him for a testimonial — even though he would’ve been perfectly happy to give one to them.

Karen offers everything I look for in a freelance writer: Her work is excellent, she finishes on time (if not ahead of schedule), and her attention to detail is wonderful. I enjoyed working with her so much that, as soon as her first article was completed, I asked her if she’d like to write for us again. I happily recommend her.

Note: You can count me among the poor, unfortunate souls who missed out on Jon’s generosity. Before becoming Smart Blogger’s Editor-in-Chief, I was a freelancer. I wrote five posts for Smart Blogger as a freelance writer, which means I passed on five opportunities for Jon to say nice things about me. Don’t repeat my mistakes — ask for testimonials at every opportunity.

4. Learn How to Craft a Killer Author Bio

5. Know How to Write a Pitch

6. Learn the Legal Side of Freelancing

The Definitive Guide to Freelance Contracts, Invoices, & Taxes

The legalities can seem so scary and daunting that many freelance writers choose to stick their heads in the sand and ignore them — or, worse, give up on their freelancing dreams rather than have to deal with any of it.

Types of Writing a Freelance Writer Can Offer

    – this is what I mostly write and what most companies online need.

  • Magazine articles – this type of writing is more formal and journalistic in nature.
  • Site content – businesses have websites with many pages. As a freelance writer, you might be assigned to write an About page or Products page. This typically falls under copywriting. – emails are short pieces of content between 500-1,000 words and many businesses rely on emails to grow their income.
  • eBooks – many businesses use eBooks to attract people to their newsletter. Most eBook writing is ghostwritten, but it’s a great experience to have under your belt. – These are lead generating professional articles for small businesses. – Like white paper writing, case studies are a high paying service to offer. You are interviewing customers and clients of a company and sharing the results of their success using the client’s product or service. – did you know there are dozens of short writing projects that pay hundreds of dollars? These are fast projects to write (under an hour) and they pay well. For example, a team page on a company website is made up of several bios. A freelance writer can write those bios and for $250 a bio, that’s not a bad service to offer!

Freelance writing has given me a whole new life of living. I take my twins to school, am here when they get sick for weeks at a time and can participate in the reading program at their school every week.

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About The Author

Hi I’m Elna and I’m a freelance writer and mom blogger. I help people just like you become a profitable freelance writer. Within 6 months of starting my freelance writing business from scratch I was able to earn a full-time living as a part-time freelance writer while taking care of my twin toddlers. Check out my free email course Get Paid to Write Online and learn the steps you need to take to be a freelance writer.

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Hi Elna, I am so grateful to stumble across your content. This is Day 1 of researching my idea of becoming a freelance writer so I appreciate learning from your guidance so early in my journey. I’m signed up for the MasterClass and just downloaded your business plan. It’s a great start for today. A bit overwhelming, but satisfying to take my first steps. Thanks again. Respectfully, NikReply to Nikki

hello there Elna…first of all i would like to say i found ur freelance writing journey really inspiring cause since the past few months i’ve been at a loss regarding what i should plan on my future career based on my interests..[which is mainly reading novels and writing poems and other stuff lol] I am surprised why i didnt think of freelancing and content writing before so thank you very much! By the way i would like to know if contents related to psychology and mental health be eye catching for readers or shud i approach a more random topic? pls reply and thank you in advance Elna!Reply to ayisha

Hi Ayisha, That’s awesome you are now thinking of content writing and being a freelance writer. Regarding your question, there are lots of niches you can write about and be an authority too! I have a Booming Writing Niches Guide that tells you all those niches: https://elnacain.com/course/booming-writing-niches/Reply to Elna

Hi Elna.I appreciate for your great and inspiring information on how you started from humble background to become a powerful freelancer writer you are.Am 20 years and currently studying Diploma in ICT in college and have been having interest on reading novels and having greater hopes that l will start writing jobs but wondering how I will get started.ThanksReply to Pauline

Hello Elna thank you so very much for the insightful information you have given me. I’m looking forward to becoming a pro freelancer one day. I am however anxious and nervous a bit. I am at ground level and unsure how to start offReply to Peterson

Hi Peterson, Thank you so much! Taking the step into freelance writing doesn’t have to be hard, but I know it can be challenging with anxious feelings. Just take it one step at a time and you’ll be a great freelance writer 🙂Reply to Elna

Hi , actually I am a teenage girl who was looking for a way to earn money so I can help out my family. Then I found your website and your words inspired me and made me realize that I can become a writer or something like that. Actually.. um.. in the past I made short stories based on quotes and there was a time when I even tried to write a novel but failed to do so because I am bad at making long chapters or to say making something lengthy 😅 I don’t have the right words for this. In the first day my novel got a ton of views because of its description( What I am trying to say is that I can only write short stories) but all the readers left reading as I couldn’t meet their expectations in the long run.And the same thing happened when I tried to wrote a chat story in an app. Sigh!! I know I am asking for more but can I become a ghost writer or something in my current state. Please reply.Reply to Zohra

Hey Zohra, That’s create you wrote a short story! That’s a big accomplishment that other writers haven’t done yet. As for writing longer content, that will take time. When I first started I couldn’t write 3,000 word in-depth blog content. That took me a few years to practice. So start a blog and practice writing! You’ll discover your writing voice and from there you can start freelance writing!Reply to Elna

Hi I’m interested in becoming a freelance writer I don’t have a degree I just feel that I have as you say a niche for expressing myself kind like a pholosefer if that’s the correct wording for it Lol. I’m a Christian man so I would probably be sharing God’s word and my testimony and other ideas of courseReply to Carlos

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Freelance writer

Freelance writers do a lot. They have to brainstorm blog post ideas, create SEO blog posts, write in-depth long-form content, and create web copy for clients among other things. If you’re a freelance writer overwhelmed by the burden of constantly writing content, we have good news: you can get help from an assistant who never tires.

So where should you look for online writing jobs?

1. Freelance Writers Den

A great resource for freelancers, this membership site is so much more than a job board. For $40/month, you get access to more than 300 hours of “bootcamps” that teach you how to make money as a freelance writer and hundreds of forums where you can get any question answered. Whether you want to listen to the expert guests on their podcast, access the 24/7 community of writers, or check out video and audio training materials, the Den has everything a freelancer needs to grow their career — all in one place. Plus, they have direct job referrals to quality writing gigs in the Den 2x program.

2. FlexJobs

One of the top job boards for freelance writing jobs and remote work, FlexJobs enables you to create a custom job search profile to meet your specific needs. Select your categories (there are several under “Writing”), your preferred work schedule, your experience level and more to hone down your search results to those that best fit the freelance writer job you’re looking for. You can also set alerts so you’re notified when new jobs matching your search criteria are posted.

3. SolidGigs

SolidGigs is part job board, part productivity tool. Why? Because their team literally saves you hours of scouring job boards. They hand-pick the best gigs from around the web and compile them into a weekly email, including remote opportunities.

4. Opportunities of the Week

Sonia Weiser’s bi-weekly newsletter has become a must-have for freelance writers. She gathers dozens of calls for pitches from Twitter and emails them to her community twice a week. She offers the service through Patreon, where she asks for a membership contribution of up to $10 (and also offers sponsorships for those who can’t afford it). If you can only make a one-time contribution, she provides an option for that, too.

5. Working In Content

A platform that’s still in its beta phase, Working In Content aims to connect organizations with passionate content professionals. As a bonus, it values diversity, equity and inclusion, and it encourages the employers it works with to do the same.

Whether you’re a UX writer or a content strategist, this site is a great option to find work in content design, marketing, management and more. It offers full-time and contract roles that are either remote or in cities like Seattle, New York City and San Francisco.

6. ProBlogger Job Board

Created by Darren Rowse of ProBlogger, an authority site on blogging, the ProBlogger job board features part- and full-time, contract and freelance writer jobs across a wide variety of locations, industries and writing specialties.

Plus, given ProBlogger’s high profile in the blogosphere, it’s likely you can often find jobs posted by some big-time blogs and employers who have an idea what good writing is really worth. Besides content writing, it also lists a healthy dose of copywriting jobs.

7. Content Writing Jobs

This site content writing job board includes remote, freelance, contract and full-time jobs. To peruse these hand-picked writing opportunities, visit the site online, sign up for daily job alerts or subscribe to its paid newsletter that shares brand new openings once per week for $10/month.

8. Behance Creative Jobs

Behance allows you to upload your past projects to quickly create a visually-pleasing online portfolio, making it a great resource for writers without a website . It has its own job board which you can browse to find your next career move or freelance writing job!

freelance writing jobs

9. MediaBistro

Be sure to check out the freelance job board section of the site, as well, for a wide range of jobs for all experience levels from industries like TV, PR/marketing, magazine and book publishing and social media — a little something for everyone.

10. Morning Coffee Newsletter

With exclusive job opportunities as well as posts pulled from sites like Indeed and Craigslist, the job board consolidates a variety of gigs for everyone from newbie to seasoned freelancers. Save yourself the time of scouring numerous sites and let this newsletter bring the decent jobs right to your inbox.

11. Who Pays Writers?

Who Pays Writers? is a crowd-sourced list of publications that pay freelance writers — and it’s a gold mine. The list has hundreds of publications to explore; it not only shows you which publications are accepting submissions, it also tells you how much they pay per word.

How much do freelance writers charge?

Understanding how much freelance writers charge for each job is key to knowing their annual salary. Pricing varies widely from one freelance writer to another and can depend on a host of factors from how long the project takes to a freelancer’s cost of living.

Because writing is such a dynamic job that combines hard-to-quantify skills like research, creativity, and experience, it can be hard to find an effective pricing method. Most freelancers use one of the following:

How much do freelance writers charge per project?

From our research, freelance writers charge anything from $50-$1500 per long-form article. For longer content like ebooks and case studies, costs typically average around $2000. Freelance writers Priscilla Tan and Ashley Cummings both report charging at least $2000 for ebooks and case studies.

how much do freelance writers make - per project Twitter poll

For copywriters, it’s a bit different. Copywriters write website copy — sometimes all of the copy (i.e. the static text on About Us pages, sales pages, etc.) on website pages. Since this is often a huge project, they tend to charge more per project.

British freelance copywriter Natalia’s packages start at €1100. She’s a copywriter for “creative entrepreneurs and busy bloggers.” In contrast, veteran copywriter Kayla Hollatz has a starting rate of $5000 and also works with creative entrepreneurs and small businesses. Most other copywriters fall somewhere in between.

How much do freelance writers charge per word?

Many terribly low freelance rates are due to writing for content mills or taking any jobs available on freelance job boards like Upwork and Fiverr. Additionally, in their first year of freelancing the average freelance writer is likely to charge less since they don’t know the industry very well.

how much do freelance writers make - word count Twitter poll

Jessica Clark, a freelance writer and blogger for 10 years, says she currently charges

Factors that affect how much freelance writers earn

1. Industry

This is one of the top reasons why freelance writing income varies wildly. Some industries like technology, eCommerce, software as a service (SaaS), cybersecurity, and cryptocurrency have larger content budgets. As a result, they pay higher rates than lifestyle websites focused on fashion, pets, parenting, and consumer-facing health and wellness.

2. Niche

Again, some niches pay more than others. Long-form content like case studies and ebooks pay better, although they may take longer to complete. Technical writing, business plans, grant proposals, and press release writing also pay big bucks — though some writers may find them boring.

3. Years of experience

This is the case for freelance personal finance writer, Rebecca Lake, who reports earning about $300/hr. Lake has been writing full-time since 2014. She earns between $300-$1500 per writing project but likes to keep track of her hourly rate for her records.

.07 per word (about $105 per 1500 word article). Although she lives in the US, she writes for lifestyle sites, which are typically low-paying compared to other industries.

How much do freelance writers charge per hour?

From our research, freelance writers rarely charge by the hour. However, several individuals and organizations have done surveys to determine the average figure. Here are a couple of results worth noting:

how much do freelance writers make - Payoneer survey screenshot

Many copywriters offer day rates — in which clients pay to hire them for an entire day. Usually, copywriters charge 8 times their hourly rates to arrive at their day rate. Day rates can range from $200 – $600 (or more). UK freelance copywriter Laura Jane Johnson charges a day rate of £395.

Join the Freelance Writer Revolution

It’s not surprising that the practice of hiring freelancers—writers as well as a number of other specialties—is becoming more attractive to companies as technology continues to evolve and it is easier for work to be done remotely.

The fact is: As the Internet grows even bigger, business owners will need to ensure that their websites stay relevant and up-to-date. There’s always going to be a demand for well-written, persuasive content—and freelance writers can deliver it in abundance.

9 Stats That Will Make You Want to Invest in Content Marketing: https://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2017/10/stats-invest-content-marketing/
Some Statistics on Freelancers That Might Surprise You:
https ://www.contentrunner.com/blog/some-statistics-on-freelancers-that-might-surprise-you/

Katie Davies is a freelance writer, blogger, and world traveler. She has written for a number of businesses and publications on her three favorite subjects of fashion, marketing, and travel. When she’s not producing content, she’s either shopping for clothes, exploring a new place, or sitting somewhere having a good cup of tea.


Freelance writer

Hi X, I was reading the “Company name” blog and came across your name. Would love to connect, I’m a freelance writer and have been working with some finance and insurance brands like Client 1, Client 2, and Client 3. I thought I’d reach out and say hello. Have a great weekend. – Liz [If you have space here add your email or website URL to make it really easy to connect]

How to Become a Freelance Writer

woman writing on laptop


Freelance content writer

A freelance content writer produces content online that informs, educates, or entertains. Great content writers need to be able to write in a variety of different tones and styles and typically need a solid understanding of search engine optimization (SEO).

Freelance copywriter

Though there’s some overlap, copywriting differs from content writing in that it’s all about persuasion; copywriters take a strategic, data-driven approach to writing that’s meant to convince people to buy a product or service.

Freelance columnist

A freelance columnist works regularly with a specific publication, providing journalistic articles through the lens of their own opinions and worldviews. Whether a newspaper, magazine, or website, columnists usually contribute to a specific section, like cooking, sports, or politics.

Freelance ghostwriter

Freelance ghostwriters create written work on behalf of and credited to another individual or company. Ghostwriters often work closely with those they’re writing for, following their voice, style, and other specifications to a T.

Freelance academic writer

As the name suggests, freelance academic writers write academic content that’s rooted in evidence-based facts. Because of this, academic writers need exceptional grammar and research skills as well as an understanding of referencing styles, like APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian.

Becoming a freelance writer: Savannah’s story


“Like many people, I wasn’t too sure what to do with my life as a college student. Despite being an English Literature major, I ended up going down the path of becoming a digital marketer because it felt ‘safer,’ and I decided to pursue my love of writing in my free time by creating a lifestyle blog.

I had no idea how to be a freelance writer, though, so I turned to a friend who was already working as one and asked her for advice. She led me to a freelancing platform called Upwork and was kind enough to give me some tips and share her profile to reference.

Since then, I’ve continued to grow my own blog and have worked with multiple clients across industries, writing blog articles, social media posts, web pages, and much, much more. As of today, I’ve happily been a freelance writer for the past three and a half years.”

Why You Should Consider Freelance Writing

Step 1: Take Inventory of Your Current Skills

When a lot of members join LRA they fall into the trap of ignoring all the skills they already have. Instead, they think they need to create an entirely new set of skills and experiences and learn everything there is to know about a topic before they can even consider becoming a freelance writer.

Before I became a freelancer, I worked in mutual funds and hedge funds, doing pricing, accounting, and risk management. In college, I also did an extended three year internship with a financial advisor, so I knew about the market, retirement investment, and asset allocation.

skills you need to know to become a freelance writer.

Action step: Make a list of the things you know. Include everything and anything that comes to mind.

Step 2: Choose a Freelance Writing Niche


Niching will help you become an expert on one topic and that means you can get super focused on the brands you want to work with and the type of content you write. Also, a lot of brands will only hire freelancers with experience in that industry.


I personally think that finding a niche early can help you get focused. Because freelance writing covers such a huge number of jobs, industries, and types of writing, it’s really easy for people to get overwhelmed and do nothing.

Then, if and when you want to focus on other areas, you already have experience freelancing and you know how to find clients. That makes switching niches easier, you just repeat the stuff that worked already.

niche within a niche

Here are some examples:

  • Financial services: let’s face it, there’s money in money, and you can cover a ton of different topics ranging from personal finance to cryptocurrencies
  • Insurance: here’s another one that has money floating around and there are many different areas to get into
  • Technology: add tech to any niche, and you’re going to find lots of opportunities — sleep tech, pet tech (yes this is a thing), hospitality tech, health tech, fintech, insurtech, you name it
  • Hospitality: This goes beyond travel blogs (though keep those on the list too) hotels, rental cars, apps, tourist boards, airlines, travel insurance, luggage, are all involved here also
  • Health: There are about a million ways you can dig into health from the medical side, I know quite a few former nurses who make good money freelancing, to fitness, diet, training products, and more

Think outside the box.

freelance writing niches

Step 3: Research Your Niche

pet technology freelance writing example

Action step: Make a big list of places and people in your niche.

Here’s What Scripted Copywriters Can Do For You

Increase Organizational Agility

There are many benefits to hiring a freelance writer for your business, not least of which is increased agility. As a Scripted member, you’re able to choose from a large pool of highly vetted writers with experience in your industry to create content quickly on a wide variety of topics and in multiple formats. If a new topic emerges in your industry, you can hire a freelance writer and create content around relevant terms.

Create Quality Content at Scale

Quality content creation at scale is a challenge for every organization. If your company is growing fast, moving into new sectors, or developing new services, you will need content to support those changes on your website, blog, social media, press releases – hiring freelance content writers allows you to scale up quickly and ensure you have all the content you need to grow. Scripted’s experienced writers make it possible to increase your content writing output without taxing internal resources.

Increase Visibility & Market Share

Creating superior content is a long-term investment to increase your visibility in search, improve conversion rates on your website, and take market share from your competitors. As a Scripted member with access to our freelance writers, you have a significant edge in creating great content that will help you connect with a larger audience and grow your business whether you’re running a new startup, a small business, or an agency.


Freelance Writer

woman writing on laptop

Freelance writer

It’s all about fair play. There is no catch. It’s easy as it is: WriterBay.com offers freelance writing jobs. All you have to do to start making money is to apply your expertise from the comfort of your home. Our user-friendly control panel makes job hunting easy and saves you a lot of time.

Our business model is different from that of other companies. Our competitors usually take 75% of what the customer pays for the job. We, on the other hand, pursue a pricing policy that is writer-friendly rather than supplier-oriented. We charge less since we don’t consider ourselves to be a direct supplier of the freelance writing jobs. We are merely an intermediary between you and the client (the customer who provided the job, e.g. essay sample)

WriterBay.com is one of the best freelance writing companies on the web. As you’ve chosen writing out of hundreds of jobs, we are looking forward to helping you put your writing skills to work. Become a part of our big family and get paid as much as you want.

I have been associated with Writerbay since 2015, had many wonderful moments with the company as we writers get a lot of freedom here. It suits my working style as I can evaluate the orders before I can accept the orders, apply for orders that I really like working on, refuse orders that I am not able to work on and talk to the people at the company if I have any issues so that they are amicably resolved. I never had issues with payments even once in all these years. Considering all these, for me, this was the best possible site.

‘I’ve been working with Writerbay since 2012 and has never been so grateful for them for believing in my capabilitues. I’ve learned a lot from them and my writing skills have improved so much. The people I worked with know their stuff and were very professional in dealing with issues. The best thing about Writerbay is that you learn while you earn. I love Writerbay and will continue to work with them for as long as I live.

Hi, Having worked for over 5 years with WriterBay, I specifically like their robust writer portal, timely promotions, thoughtful bonuses, prompt payment schedule and awesome 24 x 7 customer service. They are very strict in evaluation of papers before they are delivered to client, but this is a blessing in disguise for writers to go through an excellent learning curve and master their knowledge of citations and referencing styles. In case of any issues, they are considerate in mediating between the writer and the client. I am fully satisfied with the association and it is a great place for writers.

I have been writing for Writerbay since May 2011. At first I thought it was not a legit site but after receiving my first pay, I knew it was not a scam. Since I left my job, Writerbay became my sole source of income. Aside from a good source of livelihood for me, it has also been a learning experience. Since I started writing in Writerbay, I learned a lot about different subject matters, from criminal justice to management to economics. Writing for the company is a good exercise for my mind especially since I do not have a permanent job.
I plan to work with Writerbay as long as I am able to think and use the computer.

I have been with writerbay for 5 years now. Although I have ny own share of lapses, I am believe that I develop more as a technical writer because of my tenure with writerbay. Before I was only doing it as a part time job, but I realized that the site offered me more fulfillment compared to my day job. I am now doing this full time.
I know that I will learn more and I continue to look forward to establish a good working relationship with writerbay

With writerbay, I can do whatever i want in my life. This is my second job, and firstly I took a few orders per month. But then I realized I can do more and earn more! I am traveling a lot, because I can work from any country and I have money to do this. Guys, be realistic, Writerbay gives this opportunity!

I used to write for Writerbay when I was a student since you can take orders with the deadlines that suitable for you, so to combine your studies and some writing. I have not been active for some time as I do have some other stuff to worry about, but I might consider returning back. A friend of mine is still working there as a freelancer (I referred her) and her overall impression is good. Which is nice, is that I actually earn on my friend’s orders and have some passive income due to the referral program Writerbay provides.

Writerbay is undoubtedly the best company for freelancers. They have a tough hiring team so getting an account there is extremely hard. However, once you get an account at Writerbay, you will be the happiest person.. Good support, Reliable workflow..

I like that you can work on writerbay at your own pace. Even though, there are some misunderstandings from time to time, managers look into each case and clarify all the matters. In terms of pay, I have been highly satisfied. If you specialize in a specific area, you are likely to be valued. Good luck!

How Do Payments Work In Wordapp For A Freelance Writer?

Freelance writer pay is usually an ongoing concern for most online scribes. This is why Wordapp wants to help everyone to ‘monetize their language assets’ and earn an extra income. As a writer, you are not just selling your writing skills; you are selling your time and your love of language. Spending hours researching, and getting creative, to then not get paid, can be soul destroying. Freelance writer salary payments are taken very seriously at Wordapp. You will get paid what you have been promised, for every task that is approved by the publishers.

Any freelance writer will spend almost half of their time applying for work. Pitching your freelance writer fees in a competitive environment is difficult, and very often, all that hard work comes to nothing. Once you are a verified writer with Wordapp, you log in and select the job you want to do. Meaning that your freelance writer income is assured. Each task shows the payment amount, and you can track the progress of tasks in the reports provided. Once a task is approved, the money will be credited to your withdrawable balance. Balances over 50€ are paid out every single week, and any balances under 50€ are paid on the last Friday of every month.

How to start freelance writing – your first 5 steps

1. Explore freelance writing job opportunities


Upwork is one platform I often recommend getting started with. You’ll find a ton of writing opportunities there, making it an awesome place to get a feel for the freelance writing market and, of course, actually begin your career.

2. Create your freelance writing site profile


Your photo

Your title

Your overview

So, rather than talking a lot about yourself, where you like to go on holiday, and your cat, Greg, tailor your profile overview to focus on clients’ needs, positioning yourself as the solution to their problems.

Describe the client
Describe their pains
Describe the gains they want
Position yourself as the solution
Provide validation (testimonials and results)
End with a call to action (CTA)

So, an example of a CTA might look like, “contact me today” or “get more conversions now;” however, there are several ways you can play around with it to showcase your unique personality and stand out (like Alex does).

3. Make your freelance writing portfolio… while you apply for writing jobs


Basically, instead of wasting your time coming up with random ideas, like “101 Ways to do Underwater Basket Weaving” that might not be relevant to anyone, you’ll create an effective writing sample that aligns with what a client is looking for in their listing.

And the best part of the MVP method is, all you have to do is spend half an hour or so writing just one highly efficient 200-400 word sample, as opposed to spending days or even weeks writing several long portfolio samples that could potentially lack any significant appeal.

4. Take a freelance writing course or two to hone your skills


Freelance Article Writing: Start a Freelance Writing Career!

If you want to learn more about article writing, this is a valuable course to learn how to become a profitable freelance article writer. It includes hands-on advice on how to write and structure your articles, mistakes to avoid, how to secure the best-paying writing jobs, and much more.

Freelance Copywriting: Write Dirty. Go Big. Start Now!

For newbie copywriters, take this course to discover which steps you need to take to make money copywriting, tactics to grow quickly, the four types of copywriting you need to know, amateur mistakes to avoid, and other helpful tools.

Grant Writing for Nonprofits and Freelance Writers




Business loans

Probably, though your lender may charge a prepayment penalty for doing so. This might be a flat rate or a percentage of what you would have paid in interest. Read through your contract and talk to your lender to learn what fees you might face for early repayment.

Invoice Factoring

What types of business loans are available?

From term loans to lines of credit to short-term funding, you have a variety of business loan options to choose from. What’s right for you will come down to the type of business you own and what it needs funding for.

  • Term loans. Business term loans are typically unsecured and ideal for covering a one-time expense. You receive a lump sum — typically anywhere from $5,000 to $5 million — that you pay back plus interest and fees over five to 25 years.
  • SBA loans. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers several loan programs for business owners who’ve struggled to qualify for financing in the past. These are typically term loans that come with more competitive rates since they’re partially backed by the government. However, the application process can take months to complete.
  • Lines of credit. Similar to a credit card, you receive access to a credit line that you can draw from as needed. Depending on the lender, you’ll either be on the hook for fixed installments over a set term or minimum monthly repayments.
  • Equipment and vehicle financing. These work like term loans, but they’re secured by the equipment or vehicle your business is purchasing. Rates tend to be lower than with their unsecured counterparts, but you risk losing your asset should you default.
  • Short-term business loans.Short-term business loans — typically invoice factoring, invoice financing and merchant cash advances — are ideal for businesses that need emergency funds fast. While they’re typically easier to qualify for, they’re more expensive than the other options on this list. And repayments are usually due daily or weekly over a few months.

How much can I borrow?

Depending on the lender and type of financing, you may be able to borrow anywhere from $5,000 to $5 million. The exact amount depends on how long you’ve been in business, your annual revenue and your personal credit score. What you plan on using the funds for and your existing relationship with the lender may also play a role. And some lenders might require collateral for larger amounts.

Because business loans are so common, you can find lenders that offer both online and in-person applications. You can also go through an online business loan connection service to prequalify with multiple lenders at once.

The information you need to provide will vary depending on the the type of business loan you’re applying for and the provider you go with. In general, you might need to have the following documents on hand:

Is a business loan connection service a direct lender?

No, a business loan connection service isn’t a direct lender. Instead, it works with affiliate lenders to help you find financing you might qualify for. After filling out an online form, you’ll receive prequalification offers from lenders that may be able to provide funding. This gives you an idea of what rates and terms you might qualify for before filling out the lender’s full application.

Term Loans

Term loans are one of the most popular types of small business loans. If you’ve ever taken out a mortgage or financed a vehicle purchase, then you’re probably familiar with the mechanics of a term loan. Term loans are delivered via a lump-sum of capital from a lender and paid off in fixed installments according to a schedule until you pay back the principal plus any applicable interest (and any fees). Repayment periods can vary from short term (12 months or less) to medium term (1 -3 years) to long term (3+ years). Term loans are typically secured by a lien on your business assets (a right for the lender to seize those assets if you default on the loan) and may require a personal guarantee, which means your personal assets may be liable if your business defaults on the loan. One of the perks of a term loan is that the interest rate, which could be either fixed or variable, tends to be competitive and lower than other types of small business financing. This is especially true when you consider that you may be repaying the loan over a number of years. Business owners have flexibility with regards to how they can use the funds. For instance, one could use a small business term loan to expand to a new location, replenish inventory, or hire new employees.

Merchant Cash Advance

Merchant Cash Advance

Merchant cash advances (MCAs) aren’t exactly small business loans. Instead, they’re a cash advance against your future credit card revenue delivered to you in a lump-sum. The advanced amount, which can be anywhere from 5000,500 to $400,000 is determined by the issuer and based on your average monthly credit card sales. For example, through Funding Circle’s network of lending partners, this amount is between $5,000 and $500,000. Because the cash advance is repaid as a percentage of your daily credit card revenue, it may take anywhere from 90 days to two-and-a-half years to repay. One of the key risks of MCAs is piling on too many of them – known as stacking – which may completely deplete your cash flow. You should also be aware that interest rates (often expressed as a factor rate) can be very high, ranging between 40-350%. Learn more about applying for a merchant cash advance through Funding Circle.

Working Capital





The Africa Wildlife Foundation strives to protect endangered wildlife and their habitats across Africa so wildlife can continue to thrive. Along with combating illegal poaching and trafficking, the organization helps with economic development and community empowerment throughout the continent.

Our list of 30 top charities to support

1. Best animal charity to donate to: American Humane

Founded in 1877, American Humane has spent well over a century caring for animals both large and smile, wild and domesticated. Your donations help animals find shelter, urgent care, and forever homes. The organization also focuses on promoting bonds between animals and humans.

2. Best cancer charity to donate to: Cancer Research Institute

The Cancer Research Institute funds research on immunotherapy treatment for all types of cancer. Its programs include training for emerging cancer researchers, clinical research, and public education initiatives. The organization puts 88 cents out of every dollar donated toward its programs.

3. Best charity that supports the AAPI community: GoFundMe.org’s Support the AAPI Community Fund

There has been a heartbreaking increase in violence against Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) throughout the US. It is up to us to collectively come together to stop Asian hate and push for change. GoFundMe stands with the AAPI community and is committed to resolving the racial inequities in our society. Support, uplift, and protect Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders through GoFundMe.org’s AAPI Community Fund. GoFundMe.org is an independent, registered 501(c)(3) public charity that works closely with GoFundMe. Donations to the fund go towards grants issued by GoFundMe.org that help trusted AAPI organizations that are advocating for racial justice.

4. Best charity that supports the Black community: Color Of Change

Color Of Change is a civil rights advocacy nonprofit that works to build a better world for Black people. This nonprofit has 7 million members, making it the biggest online racial justice organization in the US. They create campaigns that build power for Black communities, celebrate Black joy, and strive for progressive solutions that make a lasting impact.

5. Best COVID-19 charity to donate to: Direct Relief

Looking to support COVID-19 charities doing great work? Direct Relief is one of the best charities to donate to during the coronavirus. It uses its worldwide distribution and resources to provide medical aid such as PPE and vaccines to hospitals and facilities in the US and globally. Additionally, this charity has supported over 500 health facilities and organizations with over $74.5 million in grants.

6. Best legal aid charity to donate to: The Innocence Project

More than 365 innocent individuals in the US have been exonerated thanks to DNA evidence. The Innocence Project fights for justice by re-examining cold cases with new DNA evidence and freeing those who were wrongfully convicted. The nonprofit also aims to reform the criminal justice system to prevent future wrongful incarcerations.

7. Best veterans charity to donate to: Hope for the Warriors

Hope for the Warriors provides what it calls a full cycle of care to service members, veterans, and their families. It focuses on health and wellness, fostering a sense of community, and providing support for those transitioning from military to civilian life.

8. Best women’s health charity to donate to: Center for Reproductive Rights

This nonprofit envisions a world where every woman is treated as an equal and is free to make crucial decisions related to her own reproductive health. Its attorneys fight both nationally and internationally to give women access to birth control, safe abortions, and reproductive care.

9. Best education charity to donate to: Scholarship America

When high school students dream of going to college but can’t afford the steep costs, Scholarship America steps in to lend a hand. The organization dedicates a majority of its cash budget to programs directly related to sending individuals to college, like scholarship funds, college readiness programs, and financial aid education.

10. Best disaster relief charity to donate to: Operation USA

From ongoing earthquake recovery in Ecuador and Nepal to programs for Native Americans in South Dakota, Operation USA delivers aid to all corners of the globe. The nonprofit has worked in over 101 countries since 1979, focusing not only on disaster relief and reconstruction, but on helping and educating underserved communities.

11. Best Alzheimer’s charity to donate to: The Alzheimer’s Association

The Alzheimer’s Association aims to fight and cure Alzheimer’s disease from all sides. Donations fund Alzheimer’s research and clinical trials and help connect individuals and families affected by Alzheimer’s to care in their communities. The organization also advocates for Alzheimer’s research nationally and at the state level.

12. Best LGBTQ charity to donate to: The Trevor Project

The ultimate goal of The Trevor Project is to end suicide among LGBTQ people under 25 by providing them with counseling and education. It offers young people support with trained counselors via phone, text, and online chat. Every donation has a direct impact on changing and saving the lives of LGBTQ youths.

How to find charities

They say money can’t buy you happiness—but giving some of it away just might. Research by social psychologist Liz Dunn shows spending on others makes people happier. And it’s not just a grown-up thing: Studies show even toddlers feel good when they give.

The real question when it comes to giving isn’t why, but who? Choosing a charity is a hugely personal decision. Start by thinking about the causes closest to your heart. For example, are you an animal person? Or have you experienced diseases such as dementia in your family and want to help others in the same position? Or do you want to protect the environment? To help you make a difference, we have selected 25 of the best UK charities to donate to below. Each one represents a hugely important cause.

What are the best charities to donate to in the UK

1. Cancer Research UK

The world’s largest independent cancer research charity has one aim: to reduce the number of deaths from cancer through prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Its research has saved lives, and they recently funded research that could help predict and detect kidney cancer years before people begin to show symptoms. You can get involved by volunteering or taking part in one of their many fundraising events such as a Race for Life (5 or 10k) [link to Race for Life piece] and the annual Stand Up to Cancer. Cancer Research UK also contributed £160 million to help fund the pioneering Francis Crick Institute, which studies the biology behind disease.

2. British Heart Foundation (BHF)

As the single biggest funder of cardiovascular research in the UK, the BHF pay for nearly £100 million of research annually. They are a popular choice for many GoFundMe users who are looking to support the charity’s aim to help the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart and circulatory diseases. The BHF say people power their life-changing research—and you can get involved today. If you’re looking for inspiration to start a campaign, the charity organises a sponsored skipping challenge through schools, Jump Rope for Heart, as well as Wear Red Day and free collection of books, clothes, and more that you want to give to charity.

Cancer affects one in two Britons over their lifetime, and Macmillan looks after the needs of those affected in every sense of the word. Its goal is to improve the lives of those living with cancer in the UK through providing practical support for people affected by disease in terms of work, their finances, and their health. The charity hosts a number of notable fundraisers, including their World’s Biggest Coffee Morning, and GoFundMe users have previously shaved their heads, beards and given up alcohol in aid of the charity.

4. Great Ormond Street Hospital Charity

Great Ormond Street Hospital, or GOSH, is a world-renowned treatment centre for children. But did you know it also has its own charity, which works to support the hospital and fund research all over the country? After merging with children’s medical charity Sparks in 2017, GOSH now has the biggest fund in the UK dedicated to child health research.

5. Sightsavers

Every day, around the world, children go blind from illnesses that are entirely preventable. Sightsavers is an international organisation that works with partners in more than 30 countries to try and stop this from happening. Across the world, Sightsavers say 12 million people are blind because of cataracts when an operation that costs just £30 could save their sight. Whether you fancy running the London marathon, climbing Mount Kilimanjaro, a tandem skydive, or something slightly more relaxing, you can start fundraising for them on GoFundMe today.

6. Royal National Lifeboat Institution

Did you know that two Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) crews and 19 of their boats helped to assist the evacuation of British troops during World War II at Dunkirk? The RNLI has been saving lives at sea in and around the UK since 1824, and there are hundreds of RNLI fundraising branches which support a particular station or project. It cost £176.5 million to fund their activities last year, and they’re always looking for members of the public to get involved with giving. They even suggest hosting your own pirate day to raise cash.

7. British Red Cross

It doesn’t matter who or where you are—if you’re in crisis, the British Red Cross will help you. The British Red Cross is the United Kingdom body of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. They are currently running campaigns to help refugees in Syria and refugees in Myanmar, plus an ongoing crisis fund for those in the UK. In the past, GoFundMe users have pledged to abseil down the Olympic orbit tower to help fundraise for them, and the Red Cross suggest you get involved through volunteering, donating, or organising a sponsored silence to raise money.

8. Samaritans

In Britain, 16 people end their own life every day. And every 52 seconds, someone in crisis calls the Samaritans’ 24-hour phone line designed to help those feeling suicidal. As well as providing dedicated, round-the-clock support for those who need it most on the phone, the Samaritans work within communities to raise awareness of mental health issues. They are always looking for volunteers if you want to donate time, but the Samaritans encourage those looking to fundraise to get in touch and let them know about their plans.

9. Save the Children

Save the Children work in more than 50 countries around the world to fight for children’s rights in some of the hardest places to be a child. They work to improve lives through education and healthcare as well as providing relief at times of crisis. Tough Mudder, an endurance event series that requires some serious preparation, is a popular choice of fundraiser promoted by the charity. But if you’re looking for a slightly less rigorous challenge, you could try a 10k charity run like previous GoFundMe users.

Against Malaria Foundation

Against Malaria Foundation works to prevent the spread of malaria by distributing long-lasting, insecticide-treated mosquito nets to susceptible populations in developing countries. AMF has been active in 36 countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with a particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Read more >


Carbon180 is a climate–focused nonprofit on a mission to fundamentally rethink carbon. The organization champions the development and implementation of carbon removal technologies and practices– a critical but relatively neglected component of achieving climate goals. It does this through research, policy development and advocacy and innovation support. Read more >

Clean Air Task Force

The Clean Air Task Force (CATF) is an impact-focused non-profit that advocates for clean air policies. In addition, CATF promotes innovation in and adoption of neglected low-carbon technologies. Through policy change, technology innovation, and thought leadership, CATF drives impact to prevent catastrophic climate change through pragmatic solutions. Read more >

Development Media International

Development Media International runs large-scale media campaigns in low-income countries via radio, television, and mobile video. They work with local broadcasters to create informative and engaging programming that focuses on maternal and child health, nutrition, hygiene and sanitation, sexual reproductive health, and early childhood development. Read more >

Equalize Health (D-Rev)

Equalize Health designs and delivers affordable, innovative medical technologies that protect and transform the lives of the global poor. They recognize that health is a prerequisite to autonomy and self-sufficiency, and strive to address global health inequities. Read more >

Evergreen Collaborative

Evergreen Collaborative is creating the blueprint to defeat the climate crisis and build a clean energy future through actionable, ambitious policy proposals. Evergreen Collaborative seeks to influence Congress, the Executive Branch, and federal agencies through direct work with Hill offices and by coordinating with a wide coalition of other environmental groups. The organization was founded by former staffers of Washington State Governor Jay Inslee’s 2020 presidential campaign. Read more >

Evidence Action

Evidence Action operates three main initiatives. Dispensers for Safe Water installs and maintains chlorine dispensers in rural Africa. The Deworm the World Initiative partners with governments in India, Nigeria, and Pakistan school-based deworming programs. And Evidence Action’s Accelerator drives new program development, testing and refining high-potential, cost-effective interventions. Read more >

Fistula Foundation

Fistula Foundation is the global leader in treating obstetric fistula, a devastating childbirth injury that leaves women incontinent, humiliated, and often shunned by their communities. In addition to covering direct surgery costs, Fistula Foundation also supports training surgeons, equipping facilities, grassroots community outreach, and holistic post-surgery reintegration. Read more >

The Fred Hollows Foundation

The Fred Hollows Foundation is a leading international development organisation with a vision for a world where no person is needlessly blind or vision impaired. The Foundation has restored sight to more than 2.5 million people around the world and has supported programs to deliver more than 200 million doses of antibiotics for trachoma. They work with communities to improve their own eye health through life-changing surgeries and treatments, training doctors and health workers and pushing for change at all levels. Read more >


GiveDirectly provides unconditional cash transfers using cell phone technology to some of the world’s poorest people, as well as refugees, urban youth, and disaster victims. They also are currently running a historic Universal Basic Income initiative, delivering a basic income to 20,000+ people in Kenya in a 12-year study. Read more >

GAIN’s Salt Iodization Program

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition’s (GAIN’s) mission is to increase the consumption of nutritious foods among vulnerable populations, especially women, girls, and children. They work to strengthen food systems — particularly salt iodization — by building partnerships between governments, the private sector, and communities to design and implement effective and sustainable nutrition programs. The specific program that The Life You Can Save recommends is GAIN’s Salt Iodization program Read more >

Helen Keller International

Helen Keller International’s Vitamin A Supplementation programs provide critical nutrition to children around the world at-risk for vitamin A deficiency — a condition that can lead to blindness and death. Read more >




Benefits to Starting School Later

According to the CDC, roughly three-quarters of public middle and high schools start before 8:30 am. However, traditional school schedules don’t account for the natural sleep cycle of children and teens, and 60 percent of children complain of being tired during the school day.

List of the Pros of Starting School Later

1. It could reduce the amount of time kids are left alone.
Teens are often left alone at home at the end of the day because of the working schedules of their parents. That time alone invites the possibility of making decisions that are not necessarily healthy. Starting school later in the morning would create a later release time in the afternoon, which could reduce the amount of time some teens are left on their own.

2. It would reduce health-related issues that come with a lack of sleep.
Sleep deprivation can cause a number of different bothersome symptoms in kids of any age. A loss of sleep disrupts the normal functioning of a child’s attention span. They can struggle to focus on their environment, sensory inputs, and the classroom. A lack of sleep creates a delayed reaction time, irritability, depressed mood, forgetfulness, clumsiness, and trouble learning new concepts.

3. It could reduce caffeine dependence.
Depending on the type of coffee bean being used, a cup of brewed coffee in the morning may have up to 175mg of caffeine in it. That’s more caffeine than some energy drinks provide. Long-term side effects of using caffeine may include severe dehydrations, chronic panic attacks, and high levels of adrenaline and cortisol. High levels of caffeine also prevent reabsorption of sodium, which can lead to future medical issues. With a later start time and more sleep, some of these issues could begin to go away.

4. It could boost individual academic performance.
When there is adequate sleeping time available for children, then there is an associated rise in that student’s grades. Not only does this improve the focus of the child, it gives them time to process the information around them in the classroom environment. By removing the stress stimulus from the environment, the cortisol levels can remain at normal levels for the student, reducing the risks of distraction and hyperactivity. In 1998, Dr. Amy Wolfson, Professor of Psychology at Loyola University in Maryland, and Dr. Mary Carskadon, Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, found that students with grade averages of C or under were getting 25 fewer minutes of sleep each night compared to students with higher grades.

5. It allows students to cope with their academic responsibilities.
The University of Minnesota discovered that students who have a later start time to their school day have better overall test scores, grades, and consistency in core subject areas compared to students who go to school on a traditional schedule. Students also have improved attendance rates, reduced truancy, and reduced dropout rates when their school responsibilities match better with their biological clocks.

6. It gives students a chance to eat breakfast.
One of the first things that goes away when students are in a rush to get to school is a healthy breakfast. By pushing the start time later in the day, there is a better chance to have time to eat something healthier than a prepackaged breakfast item. Reducing the prevalence of on-the-go eating options can promote a healthier weight and better personal nutrition, which further increases the chances of a positive individual learning experience.

7. It could reduce vehicular accidents for teens.
Many teens drive themselves to school. Waking up too early, without enough sleep the night before, creates an added risk to the driving experience. AAA reports that driver drowsiness is responsible for an average of 100,000 vehicular accidents every year. Moving the start time of school wouldn’t resolve the issue of texting or talking while driving, but it would reduce the issues of driver drowsiness for many teens.

8. It would reduce the number of mood changes teens experience.
Teens are often criticized for their mood swings or moody behavior. Sometimes, these behaviors are associated with depression or some other psychological disorder. In reality, the teen may be suffering from ongoing sleep deprivation. When students (or anyone) gets enough sleep, their mood remains stabilized throughout the day, which encourages a higher level of overall motivation.

9. It would reduce common safety issues for students.
One of the biggest safety issues students face is one that most people don’t think about too often. Early start times for a school, sometimes before 8am, require children to get to school in the dark. They might be waiting at a bus stop in the dark. For younger children, they also have the threat of being home alone after school if there are no daycare or after school options. Starting school at a later time reduces all of these issues, even if it does put more pressure on the morning routine for parents.

Minimized Tardiness and Truancy

A 2016 study looked at eight high schools that delayed their school times from 7:20 am to 8:35 and 8:55 am. They found a significant decrease in truancy and tardiness, with one of the schools citing a 66 percent decrease in tardiness.

Teens should get at least 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night and elementary schoolers need at least 9 to 11 hours per night. However, adolescents typically get about 7 hours of sleep per night, resulting in psychological, educational, and physical drawbacks.

Delayed Circadian Rhythm

Adolescents experience a sleep-phase delay, meaning their sleep is delayed by two or more hours from conventional sleep times, thus making it difficult to wake up at a conventional time. Teens and older adolescents, in particular, have a later melatonin release and shut off, and typically go to sleep at 11 pm or later.

Stress Levels Are Elevated

An increasing number of students are pressured to participate in extracurricular activities to impress colleges, though this takes up a majority of their free time. With extracurricular activities or jobs, students have less time to focus on homework, so they can be up late completing projects or studying for tests. The stress from work and extracurriculars can also leave students wired for hours, making it difficult for them to sleep.

What’s Stopping A Later School Schedule?

While starting school later is seemingly beneficial for young people, it’s reasonable to wonder why so few school districts have implemented these changes. Despite the benefits of a later school schedule, other factors prevent it from becoming a more mainstream practice.

Parents’ Work Schedules

A later school schedule clashes with the average parent’s work schedule, so some parents might be unable to drop off their young children at school or stand at the bus stop with them. If parents have older teens, their younger siblings are left under their care, but then the teens themselves would have little help starting their mornings and getting to school.

Changing School Schedules Requires Community Input

Parents, teachers, school boards, and government officials are just a few of the individuals involved in shifting school times. School schedules impact the entire community, so leaders need to find a common ground beneficial to everyone, and this takes time and resources some communities might not have.

Transportation Costs

Scheduling for buses can become quite difficult if schools start later because school districts typically reuse the same buses for their elementary, middle, and high schools. If buses started traveling during rush hours, student pick-ups and drop-offs would take longer and bus drivers might be unable to get from one school to the next.

Extracurriculars and Jobs

For students who need a job to support themselves or their families, a later start time would inhibit their ability to work as much and earn money. And, if they continued to work despite a later start and end time, they’d have less time to complete homework afterward.

Additionally, later start and end times would push back extracurricular activities, so students would have less time to focus on homework, prioritize their social lives, and sleep well. It’s unlikely students would drop their extracurriculars, especially as there’s an increasing amount of pressure for students to add them to their resume.

What is the average time students wake up for school?

The average start time for schools is 8:30 am, though some start as early as 7 am, and most students wake up roughly 30 minutes to an hour before school. Students who take the bus need to wake up a bit earlier, however, to reach their bus on time.

Should I sacrifice sleep to study?

For some, staying up late or skipping sleep entirely to study for a test or get homework done seems like a good idea, but it’s harmful in the long run. Students who stay up late completing work are more likely to struggle academically the following day, regardless of the time spent studying.

Build a schedule where you can study sufficiently, but still get sufficient sleep for your age. While you shouldn’t study less, it’s more important to prioritize getting quality sleep than staying up to study.

How can I help my child sleep better?

As a parent, it’s stressful watching your child’s health suffer as a result of poor sleep. You can help them by teaching them the importance of sleep hygiene (habits to foster healthy sleep), limiting their electronics usage before bed, setting a bedtime, and incorporating sleep-inducing foods to dinnertime.

Do students get too much homework?

The National Education Association suggests students should do roughly 10 minutes of homework per night per grade level. For example, a sixth-grader should have no more than 60 minutes of homework per night. However, teens typically do over three hours of homework per night, especially if they’re in advanced or college prep classes.

Do teachers benefit from starting school later?

Starting school later mainly prioritizes students, however, it’s potentially less stressful for teachers as well. By having more time to sleep, teachers can improve their health and quality of life just as much as students.




Best Psychology Schools and Universities in the U. S.

Washington and Lee University, which is located in Lexington, Virginia, is home to only 2,223 students, but the college still boasts an incredible psychology department despite its small size. Students who pursue the school’s cognitive and behavior science major will gain a deep understanding of mental processes and behaviors. The program can lead to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree. Salaries for Washington and Lee graduates average about $76,000 a year.

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Bachelor’s Degrees in Psychology

Psychology is a wide-reaching field, covering areas like behavior, neuroscience, cognition, human development, and much more. Students who are interested in the mind and why people –– and animals –– act the way they do might want to consider earning their undergraduate degree in the field of Psychology.

From there, students can go on to advanced study in psychology, or they can branch off completely to go to law school, medical school, or even business school. For those who stay in psychology, they can earn a median salary of $77,030 as a psychologist, according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2017.

For those thinking of majoring in psychology, it is important to consider the curriculum offered by a college or university. Some schools offer, both, a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. Depending on the school, each degree prepares a student differently for life after graduation. Oftentimes, a BS prepares students for graduate studies, while a BA enables them to practice a different discipline or foreign language. Additionally, prospective students should look at what sort of research opportunities there are for undergraduates as well.

Search Programs

Located in New York City, Columbia University makes the top of the list with its award-winning Department of Psychology. The department features several psychology options including a psychology minor, psychology major, neuroscience and behavior major, and PhD and post-bachelor’s programs. Along with its rigorous instruction featuring a low student/faculty ratio, these programs offer students many applied research opportunities. Graduates of Columbia University in the City of New York can expect to earn an average income of $82,000.

University of California in Los Angeles is a large public college with over 44,537 students. The college gives students a choice of earning several psychology degrees including a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, Bachelor of Science in Psychobiology, and a Bachelor of Science in Cognitive Science. There are also minors in Applied Developmental Psychology and Cognitive Science available. In addition, students can choose to participate in the school’s PhD program, which features emphasis in health psychology, behavioral neurosciences, and many more. Students who graduate from this college often earn an average salary of $82,000.

University of St Andrews

The University is a world-class university, with a long and rich history in research activities. At the present, the university boasts a number of 30 staff members actively engaged in research. With its modern facilities and wonderful study programs, the School of Psychology & Neuroscience is a place for talented students to be in.

At the University of St Andrews, you can seek a Bachelor of Science in Psychology or an MA of Arts. Also, you can seek a Psychology degree as part of any joint degree study program.

Entry requirements & application process

You can study Psychology at this university without having a prior education in this field study. Basic skills in mathematics are surely an advantage, but not a necessity because the program will anyway cover it from the beginning. Certain grades at certain subjects are required also. If English is not your native language you’ll have to show excellent proficiency in English.

Psychology Courses in Canada After Graduation

  • Masters in Psychology in Canada is both a full-time and part-time program, which is 1 to 2-years long. Some of the areas which are specialized in the master’s degree are Cognitive Science, Psychoanalysis, Clinical Psychology, Child Psychology, etc.
  • MS in Psychology in Canada is of 3 types- course and research-based (MS Psychology), intensive research-based (Master of Science in Psychology) and professional course (Master of Applied Psychology).
  • MSc in psychology is a research-intensive program, which includes courses along with the research area and a final thesis submission after 2 years. It focuses on Health, Developmental, Cognition, Perception and Neuroscience Psychology.
  • MAP or Master in Applied Psychology in Canada acquires foundations in statistics, scientific methodology and related fields of Psychology that can be applied for research and evaluation. This includes studies in Social Psychology, Child Psychology & Applied Psychology.

There are many PhD programs offered by universities in Canada that are also available that can be for 3 to 6 years. Here is the complete list of Psychology courses in Canada after Masters:

Universities Programs Available
University of British Columbia Ph.D. Psychology
University of Toronto Ph.D. Psychology
Ph.D. in School & Clinical Child Psychology
McGill University Ph.D. Counselling Psychology
Ph.D. in Child Psychology
University of Montreal Ph.D. Psychology
Ph.D. Research & Intervention in Clinical Psychology
Simon Fraser University Ph.D. in Educational Psychology
Ph.D. Psychology
Ph.D. Organizational Behavior
McMaster University Ph.D. Cognitive Science of Language
University of Alberta Ph.D. Psychiatry
Ph.D. Counselling Psychology

Comparison of Psychology Courses Online

Ans. Numerous certification courses are available online which are taken by experts. Students looking for additional qualifications might take up the online course.

Ans. Duration of the course varies in different levels like in UG Bachelor’s degree the duration is 3 years. Whereas in PG Master’s degree the duration is 2 years and for the PG diploma degree the duration is 1 year. The duration of an online certification course depends upon the website or the institution providing the course.

Ans. Fees of the course vary depending upon the institution which offers the course. Average fees range from INR 1.5 – 2.5 lakhs per annum for the bachelor’s level.

Ans. Nowadays due to a lot of work pressure and stress, many people are affected by psychological issues. Hence for those who wish to provide service to the people, the psychology course is worth pursuing.

Ans. The average salary ranges from INR 2-3 LPA for UG degree and from INR 4-5 LPA for PG degree depending upon the experience and skills the candidate possesses.

Ans. Yes, websites like Coursera provide financial aid to students who pursue online courses. Students need to fill an application form regarding the aid and will be notified if approved.

Ans. Communication skills, patience, problem-solving, ethics, trustworthiness, etc. are some of the skills expected in a candidate after the completion of a psychology course.

Ans. Job opportunities like Psychotherapist, Psychologist, Counselor, Special Education Teacher, Psychiatrists, etc. are available after the completion of psychology courses.




National Groups versus Family Groups

Human beings mainly thrive in societies and communities. A society comprises individuals who share in features and engage in similar practices. There are different kinds of groups in society. The nature of a group is influenced by the priorities, goals, and actions of the members. Essentially, a social group acts as a representation of the inclinations of the group’s members. Within every given society, there are identity groups and national groups. There are several differences between the two social units.

Family groups are those which define the heritage of the members of a given community within the State. Alternatively, national groups are those which capture the different aspects of a given community. For instance, a Chinese family in America comprises an identity group. This is because it consists mainly of a few individuals who converge given their shared heritage. In China, the community would form part of the national group. Therefore, an identity group serves the interests of a few individuals while a national group serves the interest of the largest number of individuals.

Likewise, a family group is influenced by the desire to promote the culture of the given individuals within the setting. It entails the indoctrination of the members in order to reinforce their engagement of pre-established beliefs and cultural practices. Nation groups are however aligned towards the promotion of economic and social interests of the members of a given country. The guiding frameworks in the national groups are not influenced by the members of the community but also the administrative bodies.

Conclusively, national and family groups form the major social groups. Nonetheless, the groups project a myriad difference. Family groups entail and address fewer individuals than is the case with national groups. Furthermore, Family groups promote the heritages and behavioral inclinations of the members. National groups, on the other hand, are aligned towards the improvement of diverse economic and social conditions in the overall society. A similar topic and as well interesting you can read here self identity essays it would help you to understand the identity of groups better.


Sexually Transmitted Diseases

These are diseases caused by the infections which are contacted by an individual to another through sexual contact. The reason they are also called sexually transmitted infections is due to a lack of symptoms. When they cause symptoms, then they are referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (“STDs | Sexually Transmitted Diseases – Symptoms & Treatment”, 2016). There are various sexually transmitted infections.

One of the STDs is gonorrhea. This is an infection which is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhea. The infection affects the urethra, anus, cervix, vagina and the penis. Often, gonorrhea shows no symptoms, especially in women (Workowski & Berman, 2011). On women, the symptoms include yellowish-green discharge; vomiting; swelling of the vulva, pain when urinating; and abdominal pain. In men, the symptoms include discharge of pus-like fluid from the penis; burning sensation during urination; and frequently urinating than usual. Treatment is achieved through the administration of some antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin among others. The drugs should be prescribed by the doctor. The disease can be prevented by abstaining from sexual intercourse or the use of condoms (Workowski & Berman, 2011).

Syphilis is another STD which is caused by bacteria called Treponema pallidum. Based on the clinical findings, the STD can be divided into stages.   It can either be primary, secondary or tertiary syphilis. Primary syphilis shows symptoms that include chancre at the site of infection or ulcers (Workowski & Berman, 2011). The secondary syphilis is shown by the skin rash, lymphadenopathy or mucocutaneous lesions. Tertiary syphilis is shown by the general paresis, tabes dorsalis, or gummatous lesions. Treatment can be achieved through taking of penicillin G. the drug can treat all stages of syphilis. The long duration of therapy can be utilized to treat tertiary syphilis and late latent syphilis. Prevention is also achieved through abstinence and using a condom during sex (Workowski & Berman, 2011).