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Benefits to Starting School Later

According to the CDC, roughly three-quarters of public middle and high schools start before 8:30 am. However, traditional school schedules don’t account for the natural sleep cycle of children and teens, and 60 percent of children complain of being tired during the school day.

List of the Pros of Starting School Later

1. It could reduce the amount of time kids are left alone.
Teens are often left alone at home at the end of the day because of the working schedules of their parents. That time alone invites the possibility of making decisions that are not necessarily healthy. Starting school later in the morning would create a later release time in the afternoon, which could reduce the amount of time some teens are left on their own.

2. It would reduce health-related issues that come with a lack of sleep.
Sleep deprivation can cause a number of different bothersome symptoms in kids of any age. A loss of sleep disrupts the normal functioning of a child’s attention span. They can struggle to focus on their environment, sensory inputs, and the classroom. A lack of sleep creates a delayed reaction time, irritability, depressed mood, forgetfulness, clumsiness, and trouble learning new concepts.

3. It could reduce caffeine dependence.
Depending on the type of coffee bean being used, a cup of brewed coffee in the morning may have up to 175mg of caffeine in it. That’s more caffeine than some energy drinks provide. Long-term side effects of using caffeine may include severe dehydrations, chronic panic attacks, and high levels of adrenaline and cortisol. High levels of caffeine also prevent reabsorption of sodium, which can lead to future medical issues. With a later start time and more sleep, some of these issues could begin to go away.

4. It could boost individual academic performance.
When there is adequate sleeping time available for children, then there is an associated rise in that student’s grades. Not only does this improve the focus of the child, it gives them time to process the information around them in the classroom environment. By removing the stress stimulus from the environment, the cortisol levels can remain at normal levels for the student, reducing the risks of distraction and hyperactivity. In 1998, Dr. Amy Wolfson, Professor of Psychology at Loyola University in Maryland, and Dr. Mary Carskadon, Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, found that students with grade averages of C or under were getting 25 fewer minutes of sleep each night compared to students with higher grades.

5. It allows students to cope with their academic responsibilities.
The University of Minnesota discovered that students who have a later start time to their school day have better overall test scores, grades, and consistency in core subject areas compared to students who go to school on a traditional schedule. Students also have improved attendance rates, reduced truancy, and reduced dropout rates when their school responsibilities match better with their biological clocks.

6. It gives students a chance to eat breakfast.
One of the first things that goes away when students are in a rush to get to school is a healthy breakfast. By pushing the start time later in the day, there is a better chance to have time to eat something healthier than a prepackaged breakfast item. Reducing the prevalence of on-the-go eating options can promote a healthier weight and better personal nutrition, which further increases the chances of a positive individual learning experience.

7. It could reduce vehicular accidents for teens.
Many teens drive themselves to school. Waking up too early, without enough sleep the night before, creates an added risk to the driving experience. AAA reports that driver drowsiness is responsible for an average of 100,000 vehicular accidents every year. Moving the start time of school wouldn’t resolve the issue of texting or talking while driving, but it would reduce the issues of driver drowsiness for many teens.

8. It would reduce the number of mood changes teens experience.
Teens are often criticized for their mood swings or moody behavior. Sometimes, these behaviors are associated with depression or some other psychological disorder. In reality, the teen may be suffering from ongoing sleep deprivation. When students (or anyone) gets enough sleep, their mood remains stabilized throughout the day, which encourages a higher level of overall motivation.

9. It would reduce common safety issues for students.
One of the biggest safety issues students face is one that most people don’t think about too often. Early start times for a school, sometimes before 8am, require children to get to school in the dark. They might be waiting at a bus stop in the dark. For younger children, they also have the threat of being home alone after school if there are no daycare or after school options. Starting school at a later time reduces all of these issues, even if it does put more pressure on the morning routine for parents.

Minimized Tardiness and Truancy

A 2016 study looked at eight high schools that delayed their school times from 7:20 am to 8:35 and 8:55 am. They found a significant decrease in truancy and tardiness, with one of the schools citing a 66 percent decrease in tardiness.

Teens should get at least 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night and elementary schoolers need at least 9 to 11 hours per night. However, adolescents typically get about 7 hours of sleep per night, resulting in psychological, educational, and physical drawbacks.

Delayed Circadian Rhythm

Adolescents experience a sleep-phase delay, meaning their sleep is delayed by two or more hours from conventional sleep times, thus making it difficult to wake up at a conventional time. Teens and older adolescents, in particular, have a later melatonin release and shut off, and typically go to sleep at 11 pm or later.

Stress Levels Are Elevated

An increasing number of students are pressured to participate in extracurricular activities to impress colleges, though this takes up a majority of their free time. With extracurricular activities or jobs, students have less time to focus on homework, so they can be up late completing projects or studying for tests. The stress from work and extracurriculars can also leave students wired for hours, making it difficult for them to sleep.

What’s Stopping A Later School Schedule?

While starting school later is seemingly beneficial for young people, it’s reasonable to wonder why so few school districts have implemented these changes. Despite the benefits of a later school schedule, other factors prevent it from becoming a more mainstream practice.

Parents’ Work Schedules

A later school schedule clashes with the average parent’s work schedule, so some parents might be unable to drop off their young children at school or stand at the bus stop with them. If parents have older teens, their younger siblings are left under their care, but then the teens themselves would have little help starting their mornings and getting to school.

Changing School Schedules Requires Community Input

Parents, teachers, school boards, and government officials are just a few of the individuals involved in shifting school times. School schedules impact the entire community, so leaders need to find a common ground beneficial to everyone, and this takes time and resources some communities might not have.

Transportation Costs

Scheduling for buses can become quite difficult if schools start later because school districts typically reuse the same buses for their elementary, middle, and high schools. If buses started traveling during rush hours, student pick-ups and drop-offs would take longer and bus drivers might be unable to get from one school to the next.

Extracurriculars and Jobs

For students who need a job to support themselves or their families, a later start time would inhibit their ability to work as much and earn money. And, if they continued to work despite a later start and end time, they’d have less time to complete homework afterward.

Additionally, later start and end times would push back extracurricular activities, so students would have less time to focus on homework, prioritize their social lives, and sleep well. It’s unlikely students would drop their extracurriculars, especially as there’s an increasing amount of pressure for students to add them to their resume.

What is the average time students wake up for school?

The average start time for schools is 8:30 am, though some start as early as 7 am, and most students wake up roughly 30 minutes to an hour before school. Students who take the bus need to wake up a bit earlier, however, to reach their bus on time.

Should I sacrifice sleep to study?

For some, staying up late or skipping sleep entirely to study for a test or get homework done seems like a good idea, but it’s harmful in the long run. Students who stay up late completing work are more likely to struggle academically the following day, regardless of the time spent studying.

Build a schedule where you can study sufficiently, but still get sufficient sleep for your age. While you shouldn’t study less, it’s more important to prioritize getting quality sleep than staying up to study.

How can I help my child sleep better?

As a parent, it’s stressful watching your child’s health suffer as a result of poor sleep. You can help them by teaching them the importance of sleep hygiene (habits to foster healthy sleep), limiting their electronics usage before bed, setting a bedtime, and incorporating sleep-inducing foods to dinnertime.

Do students get too much homework?

The National Education Association suggests students should do roughly 10 minutes of homework per night per grade level. For example, a sixth-grader should have no more than 60 minutes of homework per night. However, teens typically do over three hours of homework per night, especially if they’re in advanced or college prep classes.

Do teachers benefit from starting school later?

Starting school later mainly prioritizes students, however, it’s potentially less stressful for teachers as well. By having more time to sleep, teachers can improve their health and quality of life just as much as students.

Sources:

https://vittana.org/19-should-school-start-later-in-the-morning-pros-and-cons
https://www.sleepjunkie.com/benefits-to-starting-school-later/
https://eachnight.com/sleep/benefits-of-school-starting-later/

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Best Psychology Schools and Universities in the U. S.

Washington and Lee University, which is located in Lexington, Virginia, is home to only 2,223 students, but the college still boasts an incredible psychology department despite its small size. Students who pursue the school’s cognitive and behavior science major will gain a deep understanding of mental processes and behaviors. The program can lead to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree. Salaries for Washington and Lee graduates average about $76,000 a year.

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Bachelor’s Degrees in Psychology

Psychology is a wide-reaching field, covering areas like behavior, neuroscience, cognition, human development, and much more. Students who are interested in the mind and why people –– and animals –– act the way they do might want to consider earning their undergraduate degree in the field of Psychology.

From there, students can go on to advanced study in psychology, or they can branch off completely to go to law school, medical school, or even business school. For those who stay in psychology, they can earn a median salary of $77,030 as a psychologist, according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2017.

For those thinking of majoring in psychology, it is important to consider the curriculum offered by a college or university. Some schools offer, both, a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. Depending on the school, each degree prepares a student differently for life after graduation. Oftentimes, a BS prepares students for graduate studies, while a BA enables them to practice a different discipline or foreign language. Additionally, prospective students should look at what sort of research opportunities there are for undergraduates as well.

Search Programs

Located in New York City, Columbia University makes the top of the list with its award-winning Department of Psychology. The department features several psychology options including a psychology minor, psychology major, neuroscience and behavior major, and PhD and post-bachelor’s programs. Along with its rigorous instruction featuring a low student/faculty ratio, these programs offer students many applied research opportunities. Graduates of Columbia University in the City of New York can expect to earn an average income of $82,000.

University of California in Los Angeles is a large public college with over 44,537 students. The college gives students a choice of earning several psychology degrees including a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, Bachelor of Science in Psychobiology, and a Bachelor of Science in Cognitive Science. There are also minors in Applied Developmental Psychology and Cognitive Science available. In addition, students can choose to participate in the school’s PhD program, which features emphasis in health psychology, behavioral neurosciences, and many more. Students who graduate from this college often earn an average salary of $82,000.

University of St Andrews

The University is a world-class university, with a long and rich history in research activities. At the present, the university boasts a number of 30 staff members actively engaged in research. With its modern facilities and wonderful study programs, the School of Psychology & Neuroscience is a place for talented students to be in.

At the University of St Andrews, you can seek a Bachelor of Science in Psychology or an MA of Arts. Also, you can seek a Psychology degree as part of any joint degree study program.

Entry requirements & application process

You can study Psychology at this university without having a prior education in this field study. Basic skills in mathematics are surely an advantage, but not a necessity because the program will anyway cover it from the beginning. Certain grades at certain subjects are required also. If English is not your native language you’ll have to show excellent proficiency in English.

Psychology Courses in Canada After Graduation

  • Masters in Psychology in Canada is both a full-time and part-time program, which is 1 to 2-years long. Some of the areas which are specialized in the master’s degree are Cognitive Science, Psychoanalysis, Clinical Psychology, Child Psychology, etc.
  • MS in Psychology in Canada is of 3 types- course and research-based (MS Psychology), intensive research-based (Master of Science in Psychology) and professional course (Master of Applied Psychology).
  • MSc in psychology is a research-intensive program, which includes courses along with the research area and a final thesis submission after 2 years. It focuses on Health, Developmental, Cognition, Perception and Neuroscience Psychology.
  • MAP or Master in Applied Psychology in Canada acquires foundations in statistics, scientific methodology and related fields of Psychology that can be applied for research and evaluation. This includes studies in Social Psychology, Child Psychology & Applied Psychology.

There are many PhD programs offered by universities in Canada that are also available that can be for 3 to 6 years. Here is the complete list of Psychology courses in Canada after Masters:

Universities Programs Available
University of British Columbia Ph.D. Psychology
University of Toronto Ph.D. Psychology
Ph.D. in School & Clinical Child Psychology
McGill University Ph.D. Counselling Psychology
Ph.D. in Child Psychology
University of Montreal Ph.D. Psychology
Ph.D. Research & Intervention in Clinical Psychology
Simon Fraser University Ph.D. in Educational Psychology
Ph.D. Psychology
Ph.D. Organizational Behavior
McMaster University Ph.D. Cognitive Science of Language
University of Alberta Ph.D. Psychiatry
Ph.D. Counselling Psychology

Comparison of Psychology Courses Online

Ans. Numerous certification courses are available online which are taken by experts. Students looking for additional qualifications might take up the online course.

Ans. Duration of the course varies in different levels like in UG Bachelor’s degree the duration is 3 years. Whereas in PG Master’s degree the duration is 2 years and for the PG diploma degree the duration is 1 year. The duration of an online certification course depends upon the website or the institution providing the course.

Ans. Fees of the course vary depending upon the institution which offers the course. Average fees range from INR 1.5 – 2.5 lakhs per annum for the bachelor’s level.

Ans. Nowadays due to a lot of work pressure and stress, many people are affected by psychological issues. Hence for those who wish to provide service to the people, the psychology course is worth pursuing.

Ans. The average salary ranges from INR 2-3 LPA for UG degree and from INR 4-5 LPA for PG degree depending upon the experience and skills the candidate possesses.

Ans. Yes, websites like Coursera provide financial aid to students who pursue online courses. Students need to fill an application form regarding the aid and will be notified if approved.

Ans. Communication skills, patience, problem-solving, ethics, trustworthiness, etc. are some of the skills expected in a candidate after the completion of a psychology course.

Ans. Job opportunities like Psychotherapist, Psychologist, Counselor, Special Education Teacher, Psychiatrists, etc. are available after the completion of psychology courses.

References:

https://www.bestcollegereviews.org/top/best-bachelors-degrees-in-psychology/
https://universityhq.org/best-colleges/rankings/psychology-schools/
https://www.studying-in-uk.org/top-psychology-courses-in-uk/
https://leverageedu.com/blog/psychology-courses-in-canada/
https://collegedunia.com/courses/psychology

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National Groups versus Family Groups

Human beings mainly thrive in societies and communities. A society comprises individuals who share in features and engage in similar practices. There are different kinds of groups in society. The nature of a group is influenced by the priorities, goals, and actions of the members. Essentially, a social group acts as a representation of the inclinations of the group’s members. Within every given society, there are identity groups and national groups. There are several differences between the two social units.

Family groups are those which define the heritage of the members of a given community within the State. Alternatively, national groups are those which capture the different aspects of a given community. For instance, a Chinese family in America comprises an identity group. This is because it consists mainly of a few individuals who converge given their shared heritage. In China, the community would form part of the national group. Therefore, an identity group serves the interests of a few individuals while a national group serves the interest of the largest number of individuals.

Likewise, a family group is influenced by the desire to promote the culture of the given individuals within the setting. It entails the indoctrination of the members in order to reinforce their engagement of pre-established beliefs and cultural practices. Nation groups are however aligned towards the promotion of economic and social interests of the members of a given country. The guiding frameworks in the national groups are not influenced by the members of the community but also the administrative bodies.

Conclusively, national and family groups form the major social groups. Nonetheless, the groups project a myriad difference. Family groups entail and address fewer individuals than is the case with national groups. Furthermore, Family groups promote the heritages and behavioral inclinations of the members. National groups, on the other hand, are aligned towards the improvement of diverse economic and social conditions in the overall society. A similar topic and as well interesting you can read here self identity essays it would help you to understand the identity of groups better.

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

These are diseases caused by the infections which are contacted by an individual to another through sexual contact. The reason they are also called sexually transmitted infections is due to a lack of symptoms. When they cause symptoms, then they are referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (“STDs | Sexually Transmitted Diseases – Symptoms & Treatment”, 2016). There are various sexually transmitted infections.

One of the STDs is gonorrhea. This is an infection which is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhea. The infection affects the urethra, anus, cervix, vagina and the penis. Often, gonorrhea shows no symptoms, especially in women (Workowski & Berman, 2011). On women, the symptoms include yellowish-green discharge; vomiting; swelling of the vulva, pain when urinating; and abdominal pain. In men, the symptoms include discharge of pus-like fluid from the penis; burning sensation during urination; and frequently urinating than usual. Treatment is achieved through the administration of some antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin among others. The drugs should be prescribed by the doctor. The disease can be prevented by abstaining from sexual intercourse or the use of condoms (Workowski & Berman, 2011).

Syphilis is another STD which is caused by bacteria called Treponema pallidum. Based on the clinical findings, the STD can be divided into stages.   It can either be primary, secondary or tertiary syphilis. Primary syphilis shows symptoms that include chancre at the site of infection or ulcers (Workowski & Berman, 2011). The secondary syphilis is shown by the skin rash, lymphadenopathy or mucocutaneous lesions. Tertiary syphilis is shown by the general paresis, tabes dorsalis, or gummatous lesions. Treatment can be achieved through taking of penicillin G. the drug can treat all stages of syphilis. The long duration of therapy can be utilized to treat tertiary syphilis and late latent syphilis. Prevention is also achieved through abstinence and using a condom during sex (Workowski & Berman, 2011).

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Safe Drug Disposal is Key to Preventing Abuse

According to CVS Health, approximately two thirds of teens have abused prescription drugs. They are known to mostly obtain them from family or friends or acquaintances. This social issue has become an important political battleground and thankfully it can now be prevented through the safe disposal of unwanted medications.

In a move to meet their goal of drug abuse prevention, CVS, a pharmacy innovation company, launched their Medication Disposal for Safer Communities program. Through the program the police departments are able to make an application of receiving a drug collection unit that will ensure the community disposes unwanted medications safely. Since the year 2014, a total of 626 drug collection units have been donated to police departments in about 42 states. In addition, prescription drugs of more than 47 metric tons have been collected through the program. The program has proved to be very beneficial because in addition to preventing medication diversion and abuse it also ensures the environment is not polluted by ensuring medications that are improperly disposed do not contaminate the water supply.

According to Tom Davis, a vice president at the company, the disposal program together with the Partnership for Drug-Free Kids work together to come up with a permanent solution of drug disposal for the community. There are other ways which CV’S continue to support disposal efforts of prescription drug. They include providing their parking lot as collection site and use of customized in-store signage to promote programs focused on getting permanent drug disposal collection site. There are also hundreds of CVS pharmacy locations serving as collection sites of unwanted medication. All these locations provide envelopes that customers can use to send medications that are unwanted to be disposed safely. Another way is through the CVS.com tool launched by the company to allow visitors search ZIP code to get a disposal location of unwanted medications.

https://www.cvshealth.com/thought-leadership/safe-drug-disposal-is-key-to-preventing-abuse

Summary of Health Industry

CVS Health is currently having a leading presence in the long-term pharmacy care. Having a competitive advantage has enabled the company to fit in the industry and benefit from various market trends. In the past five years, of the 710 million prescriptions that were added in the market, CVS has managed to capture 39% through their dispensing channels.  The company share in the market is growing.

CVS has not been stagnant in the industry. The company has broadened its reach into new health care channels and industry in 2015, by acqiring Omnicare, the largest leading provider of pharmacy services in the nation. They also continued to grow the core pharmacy business by the purchase of more than 1,670 pharmacies and almost 80 retail clinics from Target Corporation. These transactions expanded the company’s pharmacy count by 20 percent and the number of clinics by 8 percent. These company trends have been a key driver of revenue gains.

Throughout the year 2015, CVS have managed to capture an outsized share of the specialty market, which is the sector that is growing fast in the industry. The company’s specialty business is the largest in the nation, and its growth has out-spaced both its nearest competitor and industry overall. In 2015, the total revenue generated from the specialty drugs dispensed and managed in the entire enterprise amounted to $40 billion representing a 32% increase from previous year.

Since the year 2010, CVS prescription business has grown twice the overall market rate. At the pharmacy, sales from same store increased 1.7percent in 2015. In 2014, same store sales increased by 4.5 percent, and front store sale decreased by 5 percent which was driven by the company exit from sale of tobacco. In 2015, CVS Pharmacy filled around 21.6% of the retail prescriptions to lead the retail drug store in U.S

Summary of Company future Plan

CVS managed to meet its financial target through its continuous focus on three pillars which include: productive, long-term growth that consider essential to maximizing shareholder value, generating significant free cash flow, and optimizing capital allocation. The company generated nearly $7 billion in free cash flow and adjusted net revenues for the year increased 10 percent to a record as $153 billion, and earnings for the year also increased nearly 15 percent to $6 billion on a comparable basis in 2015. With a high client retention rate of 98%, and net new business wins for 2016 totaled $12.7 billion which reflects the value of CVS.

According to the Chief Executive officer, the company hopes that its leadership across the pharmacy spectrum will help them continue to drive superior value for the company’s health care partners and shareholders. As the company expands its core pharmacy business, it also plans to broaden its reach into new health care channels and make investments to drive sustainable enterprise growth. CVS have strengthened its position with Hispanic customers through launching CVS Pharmacy y mas in several locations in Miami. The stores offer unique Hispanic products and services not in the traditional drugstores which have led to an increase in sales by 10percent. The company plans to expand on the concept in future.

Through its combined enterprise assets, the company also plans to bridge the historic gaps in Omnicare’s offerings to the address the population’s unmet needs. For instance, the robust offering of Omnicare of skilled nursing facility market failed to include a complete solution of addressing care coordination issues during the discharge or admission of a patient. Considering the many retail locations, CVS can ensure timeliness of medication adherence through emergency prescriptions, a move that will reduce expensive hospital admission. In addition, the company is developing integrated solutions of independent and assisted living, and also home care markets.

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Labor Unions

The two major concepts discussed in the video and the article are planning for human resource needs and managing unionized respectively. Planning for human resource needs requires management teams to extensively determine the workforce required to achieve the set objectives. Job analysis helps organizations determine the knowledge and skill level as well as the abilities required to perform a specific job. After developing a job analysis, organizations then use the information to determine job descriptions and job specifications. A job description is formally written and outlines the title, the tasks an employee is to perform, relationship with other employees, specific skills required, and an employee’s responsibilities. A job specification highlights the academic qualifications required to perform a given job. The specification also reveals the experience required and the personal and physical characteristics necessary for a given employment position.

The article also details the unique challenge of managing unionized workers. With specific reference to Hollywood, the article reveals the importance of unions in negotiating for better compensation for their members. However, the negotiations between unions and management are not always smooth. Strikes are a common practice with unions castigating their members to abandon their workplaces resulting in massive losses for an organization. The formation of labor unions is recognized by the American constitution, further complicating the management of unionized employees. As revealed by the article, the financial impact of the 1988 strike in Hollywood led to losses of half a billion dollars.

In the United States, employee unions have significantly contributed to better compensation for blue-collar jobs and government employees. The unions have pushed for collective bargaining agreements with employers resulting to higher wages and salaries for members. Given the benefits of joining unions, employees from all industries should seek to unionize. A union in the entertainment industry would not only negotiate for better compensation packages for artists but also inform them of their rights. Unions would also benefit the employees in the industry by negotiating for better working conditions. The disadvantages of a union in the entertainment industry include potential strikes due to disagreements with studio management teams, high operational costs for studios, and hire prices of shows produced. Personally, I have not worked for a unionized organization, however, I have friends who have shared their experience of working in such organizations. The poor relationship between management and unions is a common phenomenon.